Ray J Akhurst

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The susceptibilities of the major pests of cotton in Australia, Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera, to some insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis were tested by bioassay. A commercial formulation, DiPel, and individual purified insecticidal proteins were tested. H. armigera was consistently more tolerant to B. thuringiensis(More)
We describe here the organization of the CyIII subfamily of cytoskeletal actin genes in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. The functional genes CyIIIa and CyIIIb are linked at a 6 X 10(3)-base distance. Gene CyIIIc appears to be a pseudogene that lacks 5' exons and displays unselected mutational changes. Gene CyIIIa codes for a protein that(More)
Sample preparation is crucial for extraction and higher resolution of proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). In this study, we present an efficient protocol to extract proteins from mature rice leaves by minimizing the presence of nonprotein contaminants and by maximizing contact between the sample and extraction buffer. A combination of(More)
Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus are gram-negative bacteria that produce a range of proteins that are toxic to insects. We recently identified a novel 42-kDa protein from Xenorhabdus nematophila that was lethal to the larvae of insects such as Galleria mellonella and Helicoverpa armigera when it was injected at doses of 30 to 40 ng/g larvae. In the present(More)
A new DNA sequence cry5Ad/orf2-5Ad (GenBank accession number EF219060) was isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis strain L366. This DNA sequence contains two ORFs: cry5Ad (a previously unreported member of the cry5A gene family) and orf2-5Ad. cry5Ad is unique among cry5A genes in that it encodes only the N-terminal region of a typical Cry5Adelta-endotoxin.(More)
Several Cry1Ac binding proteins from midgut of Helicoverpa armigera were purified using toxin-affinity chromatography. Enzyme assays showed that the purified proteins had strong aminopeptidase activity. The N-terminal sequences confidently identified a 124-kDa binding protein as an aminopeptidase N (APN), and some similarity suggests that a 162-kDa binding(More)
Human chorionic gonadotrophin beta (HCG-beta) is a trophoblast marker. Its expression is normally limited to syncytiotrophoblast cells of chorionic villi, although it is known to be secreted from the human embryo as early as 7 days post-fertilization. To examine the onset of embryonic transcriptional activity of the gene encoding this polypeptide we have(More)
Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins (Bt-toxins) are the most important biopesticides used in controlling insect pests and vectors of diseases. The emergence of widespread resistance to Bt in some insect species is a serious threat to agricultural production. Analysis of Bt-resistant and susceptible laboratory strains of Helicoverpa armigera revealed elevated(More)
The biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i.) is highly toxic to the larvae of Chironomus tepperi, an important pest of aerially sown rice in southern Australia. In this study, all of the known Cry genes and the Cyt1A gene from B.t.i. were expressed and tested for individual toxicity against fourth instar C. tepperi larvae. Possible synergism(More)
Myogenic differentiation involves withdrawal of myoblasts from the cell cycle and fusion to form multinucleate myotubes. To examine the role that cell cycle control genes may play in this process, we investigated the steady state levels of CDC2 protein and RNA during myogenesis of L6E9 rat myoblasts. Indirect immunofluorescence using a CDC2(More)