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The permethrin tolerance (PT) of a population of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) increased following the introduction of permethrin-impregnated nets for malaria control in certain villages near Kisumu, western Kenya. Using a biochemical test that indirectly measures oxidases associated with permethrin resistance, we found that this(More)
One leishmanial stock was isolated from a Phlebotomus duboscqi female captured in Baringo District, Kenya, and others from papular lesions that developed at sites where this sandfly had fed on a man. When characterized by cellulose acetate electrophoresis (eight enzymes examined), these isolates proved to be identical to known Leishmania major strains from(More)
Isoenzyme characterization of the Simulium damnosum Theobald sibling species complex from two widely separated geographical areas in Kenya is presented based on 10 enzymatic loci. Four river systems in Western and Nyanza Provinces, namely, the Yala, Lusumu, Isiukhu and the Nzoia harbouring S. damnosum s.l. were compared among themselves and with S. damnosum(More)
A large-scale longitudinal cohort project was initiated in western Kenya in June 1992. The primary purpose of the project was to study Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a highly endemic area using a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, which included epidemiology, entomology, and immunology. Between June 1992 and July 1994, pregnant women living in(More)
Susceptibility of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to permethrin decreased following the installation of mosquito nets impregnated with 0.5 g permethrin per square metre in four villages near Kisumu, Kenya. During the first year that permethrin-impregnated bednets and curtains were in place, the exposure time to 50% mortality (LT50) increased 2.5-fold(More)
To attempt rodent-sand fly-rodent transmission of Leishmania major, laboratory-reared Phlebotomus doboscqi were fed on L. major-infected mice and then refed on uninfected mice 21 days later. Flies which refed either probed 1-2 times and took a full blood meal in less than 10 min or probed 3 or more times and took little or no blood during a period of 15 min(More)
Simple microplate assay methods for determining the frequency of insecticide resistance in single mosquitos were used to study the distribution and localization of organophosphate and carbamate resistance in field populations of Anopheles albimanus Weidemann in Guatemala, where such resistance, caused by heavy use of agricultural pesticides, has long been(More)
The effectiveness of village-wide use of permethrin-impregnated bed nets or eave, window, and door curtains as control measures for Plasmodium falciparum malaria was evaluated during two successive high-transmission seasons in western Kenya. Pairs of villages were assigned to one of three study groups: bed net, curtain, or control. Clinical, parasitologic,(More)