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Global mineralogical mapping of Mars by the Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft provides new information on Mars' geological and climatic history. Phyllosilicates formed by aqueous alteration very early in the planet's history (the "phyllocian" era) are(More)
The OMEGA/Mars Express hyperspectral imager identified hydrated sulfates on light-toned layered terrains on Mars. Outcrops in Valles Marineris, Margaritifer Sinus, and Terra Meridiani show evidence for kieserite, gypsum, and polyhydrated sulfates. This identification has its basis in vibrational absorptions between 1.3 and 2.5 micrometers. These minerals(More)
The Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) investigation, on board the European Space Agency Mars Express mission, is mapping the surface composition of Mars at a 0.3- to 5-kilometer resolution by means of visible-near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imagery. The data acquired during the first 9 months of the mission(More)
Stable isotope ratios of H, C, and O are powerful indicators of a wide variety of planetary geophysical processes, and for Mars they reveal the record of loss of its atmosphere and subsequent interactions with its surface such as carbonate formation. We report in situ measurements of the isotopic ratios of D/H and (18)O/(16)O in water and (13)C/(12)C,(More)
The formation of low-albedo slope streaks represents one of the most active surface processes presently observed on Mars. Ongoing debate about the origin of such streaks centers on whether they are the products of: 1) erosional processes related to ‘dry’ mass-wasting exposing a dark-toned substrate beneath a thin dust mantle; or 2)(More)
Introduction: We present here an updated view of the location of sulfate and associated ferric oxide deposits , identified through the OMEGA data in Valles Marineris, Margaritifer Terra, and Terra Meridiani [1, 2]. We briefly summarize the factors influencing spectral detections, which are spatial resolution, water ice clouds, suspended dust in the(More)
A multicomponent mineral assemblage of approximately constant proportions (for example, brucite + analcime + Fe-Mg smectite + olivine) is a possible alternative explanation for the observed position of the 2.3-and 2.5-mm features and their relative strengths. However, alteration assemblages are typically compositionally variable. Especially over the 10 5 km(More)
Introduction The Athena payload on the 2001 Mars Surveyor Program Rover will include: stereo camera and emission spectrometer for remote sensing; Mössbauer, Alpha-proton X-ray Spectrometer (APXS), microscope imager, perhaps a Raman Spectrometer for in-situ study of rocks and soils; and a coring and cache system. Viking and Pathfinder results demonstrate(More)
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