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Biological nitrogen fixation is a complex process requiring multiple genes working in concert. To date, the Klebsiella pneumoniae nif gene cluster, divided into seven operons, is one of the most studied systems. Its nitrogen fixation capacity is subject to complex cascade regulation and physiological limitations. In this report, the entire K. pneumoniae nif(More)
The transcriptional regulatory protein Fnr, acts as an intracellular redox sensor regulating a wide range of genes in response to changes in oxygen levels. Genome sequencing of Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 revealed the presence of three fnr-like genes. In this study we have constructed single, double and triple fnr deletion mutant strains of H.(More)
The metabolic capacity for nitrogen fixation is known to be present in several prokaryotic species scattered across taxonomic groups. Experimental detection of nitrogen fixation in microbes requires species-specific conditions, making it difficult to obtain a comprehensive census of this trait. The recent and rapid increase in the availability of microbial(More)
Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized in eukaryotes by the NO synthases, has multiple roles in signalling pathways and in protection against pathogens. Pathogenic microorganisms have apparently evolved defence mechanisms that counteract the effects of NO and related reactive nitrogen species. Regulatory proteins that sense NO mediate the primary response to NO and(More)
Most biological nitrogen fixation is catalyzed by molybdenum-dependent nitrogenase, an enzyme complex comprising two component proteins that contains three different metalloclusters. Diazotrophs contain a common core of nitrogen fixation nif genes that encode the structural subunits of the enzyme and components required to synthesize the metalloclusters.(More)
The redox-sensing flavoprotein NifL inhibits the activity of the nitrogen fixation (nif)-specific transcriptional activator NifA in Azotobacter vinelandii in response to molecular oxygen and fixed nitrogen. Although the mechanism whereby the A. vinelandii NifL-NifA system responds to fixed nitrogen in vivo is unknown, the glnK gene, which encodes a PII-like(More)
The bacterial activator protein NorR binds to enhancer-like elements, upstream of the promoter site, and activates sigma(54)-dependent transcription of genes that encode nitric oxide detoxifying enzymes (NorVW), in response to NO stress. Unique to the norVW promoter in Escherichia coli is the presence of three enhancer sites associated with a binding site(More)
The transposons Tn5, Tn7 and Tn10 and bacteriophage Mu have been used to derive insertion mutations in the Klebsiella pneumoniae nif gene cluster. A large number of deletion mutants have been derived by imprecise excision of insertion mutations and these deletions have been used to construct a fine-structure map of the nif cluster. Comparison of this(More)