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BACKGROUND Alcohol dependence is a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous disorder. Accordingly, a variety of subtypes of alcohol-dependent individuals have been proposed, and multiple operational definitions of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence have been used in linkage analyses directed toward detecting genes involved in alcohol use and problems.(More)
Several correlated phenotypes, alcohol dependence, major depressive syndrome, and an endophenotype of electrophysiological measurements, event-related oscillations (EROs), have demonstrated linkage on the long arm of chromosome 7. Recently, we reported both linkage and association between polymorphisms in the gene encoding the muscarinic acetylcholine(More)
The effects of hibernation on mesenteric arterial innervation and function were examined using pharmacological and immunohistochemical techniques in age-matched controls, cold-exposed controls, and 4-wk-hibernated golden hamsters. Electrical field stimulation of the isolated mesenteric arterial bed elicited frequency-dependent vasoconstriction. The(More)
It has been shown by electron microscopy that, in Xenopus laevis, Merkel cells are usually situated near the ducts of the skin glands. Cells which fluorescence in ultra-violet light after treatment of the skin with quinacrine can be identified with these Merkel cells by their position, shape and size. The method indicates the presence of purine nucleotides,(More)
1 A number of criteria for considering adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a neurotransmitter in the guinea-pig urinary bladder have been examined. In addition, the effect of tachyphylaxis to ATP on the response to non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve stimulation has been re-examined.2 Quinacrine fluorescence histochemistry revealed a population of nerve(More)
The number of quinacrine-fluorescent nerve cell bodies and the percentage of the ganglion area occupied by this fluorescence within stretch preparations of the myenteric plexus of the stomach and ileum of the guinea-pig, rabbit and rat were assessed. The number of quinacrine-positive cell bodies per cm2 of plexus varied between 1045 in the rabbit ileum to(More)
The detrusor muscle, bladder neck, proximal, middle and distal regions of the urethra of the female pig were studied by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods to localize catecholamine-containing, acetylcholinesterase-positive and peptide-containing nerves. The peptides examined included: vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, somatostatin,(More)
The distribution in the bowel wall of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-, neuropeptide Y-, and substance P-containing nerve cell bodies and nerve fibers has been described in human sigmoid colon by immunohistochemical examination. In patients with chronic idiopathic constipation, diverticular disease, and in controls (of tissue taken from patients with(More)
The distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and substance P-like immunoreactivities was studied by immunohistochemistry in the myenteric plexus and circular muscle layer of the ileum and proximal colon of rats 8 wk after induction of diabetes with streptozotocin. A consistent increase was observed in fluorescence intensity of VIP-like(More)