Ray A Stepnoski

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We report a procedure to detect electrical activity in cultured neurons by changes in their intrinsic optical properties. Using dark-field microscopy to detect scattered light, we observe an optical signal that is linearly proportional to the change in the membrane potential. Action potentials can be recorded without signal averaging. We use the dark-field(More)
The extent to which ligation and quaternary structure modify the heme-heme pocket configuration is determined by generating and analyzing transient resonance Raman spectra from various photolyzed and partially photolyzed hemoglobins (Hb). From small frequently shifts in Raman band I (approximately 1355 cm-1) it is determined that ligation induces a(More)
Time-resolved Raman studies have shown that communication between the heme oxygen binding sites and the surrounding globin occurs through the iron-proximal histidine linkage. By comparing the frequency of the Fe-His stretching mode in equilibrium deoxy- and photoinduced transient deoxyhemoglobins, we have found that ligand binding induces protein structural(More)
Low-frequency resonance Raman spectra of transient hemoglobin species were observed within 10 nanoseconds of photolysis. The Raman frequencies of the iron-proximal histidine stretching mode for transient species having either the R or the T quaternary structure are higher than in the corresponding deoxy species. The observed frequency difference in the(More)
We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of a high-speed, continuously tunable, and reset-free polarization controller based on nematic liquid-crystal (NLC) microcell wave plates fabricated directly between the tips of optical fibers. This controller utilizes a pulsed driving scheme and optimized NLC materials to achieve a stepwise switching(More)
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