Ray A Stepnoski

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We report a procedure to detect electrical activity in cultured neurons by changes in their intrinsic optical properties. Using dark-field microscopy to detect scattered light, we observe an optical signal that is linearly proportional to the change in the membrane potential. Action potentials can be recorded without signal averaging. We use the dark-field(More)
Low-frequency resonance Raman spectra of transient hemoglobin species were observed within 10 nanoseconds of photolysis. The Raman frequencies of the iron-proximal histidine stretching mode for transient species having either the R or the T quaternary structure are higher than in the corresponding deoxy species. The observed frequency difference in the(More)
We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of a high-speed, continuously tunable, and reset-free polarization controller based on nematic liquid-crystal (NLC) microcell wave plates fabricated directly between the tips of optical fibers. This controller utilizes a pulsed driving scheme and optimized NLC materials to achieve a stepwise switching(More)
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