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Microcystins are naturally occurring hepatotoxins produced by certain strains of Microcystis aeruginosa and microcystin-LR is the most toxic among the 60 microcystin variants isolated so far. These toxins have been implicated in both human and livestock mortality. In the present study we evaluated the age-dependent hepatotoxic effects of microcystin-LR(More)
Toxic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) water blooms have become a serious problem in several industrialized areas of the world. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a cyanobacterial heptapeptide that represents acute and chronic hazards to animal and human health. Identification of suitable chemprotectants against microcystin is essential considering human health(More)
T-2 toxin is the most toxic trichothecene and both humans and animals suffer from several pathological conditions after consumption of foodstuffs contaminated with trichothecenes. We investigated the molecular mechanism of T-2 toxin induced cytotoxicity and cell death in HeLa cells. T-2 toxin at LC50 of 10 ng/ml caused time dependent increase in(More)
T-2 toxin is one of the most potent trichothecenes, and on exposure causes severe human and animal diseases. We investigated the dose- and time-dependent effect of T-2 toxin on certain biochemical variables, oxidative damage in terms of antioxidant enzyme activity, and gene expression profile in mice. Mice treated intraperitoneally with either 1 LD50 or 2(More)
The mechanism of ricin-induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line HeLa was studied. The present study demonstrated that ricin induces apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) in a time dependent manner with an IC(50) for cell viability of 1 microg/ml. Ricin treatment resulted in a time dependent increase in LDH leakage, DNA fragmentation,(More)
Microcystins are cyclic heptapeptide toxins produced by certain strains of Microcystis aeruginosa and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most toxic among the 70 variants isolated so far. These toxins have been implicated in both human and livestock mortality. In the present study we investigated the microcystin-LR induced oxidative stress in mice in terms of its(More)
Microcystins are cyclic peptide toxins implicated in several livestock and human deaths. The toxicity of microcystins has been attributed to the highly specific inhibition of serine/theronine protein phosphatases-1 and 2A. Reversible protein phosphorylation is an essential regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes. We aimed to investigate the protein(More)
Okadaic acid (OA) is the major component of diarrhetic shell fish poisoning toxins and a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A. We investigated the signal transduction pathways involved in OA induced cell death in HeLa cells. OA induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis at IC50 of 100nM. OA treatment resulted in time dependent increase in reactive(More)
Many species of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce secondary metabolites with potent biotoxic or cytotoxic properties. These metabolites differ from the intermediates and cofactor compounds that are essential for cell structural synthesis and energy transduction. The mass growth of cyanobacteria which develop in fresh, brackish and, marine waters(More)
The cyclic peptide toxins microcystins and nodularins are the most common and abundant cyanotoxins present in diverse water systems. They have been the cause of human and animal health hazards and even death. Development of suitable chemoprotectants against microcystin is essential considering the human health importance. In the present study, three agents(More)