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LFA-1 (leukocyte function-associated antigen-1), is a member of the beta2-integrin family and is expressed on all leukocytes. This letter describes the discovery and preliminary SAR of spirocyclic hydantoin based LFA-1 antagonists that culminated in the identification of analog 8 as a clinical candidate. We also report the first example of the efficacy of a(More)
Oral bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug was greatly enhanced by using its solid dispersion in a surface-active carrier. The weakly basic drug (pK(a) approximately 5.5) had the highest solubility of 0.1mg/ml at pH 1.5, < 1 microg/ml aqueous solubility between pH 3.5 and 5.5 at 24+/-1 degrees C, and no detectable solubility (< 0.02 microg/ml) at(More)
Atomic-level molecular dynamics simulations of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayers containing small, amphiphilic, drug-like molecules were carried out to examine the influence of polar functionality on membrane partitioning and transport. Three related molecules (tyramine, phenethylamine, and 4-ethylphenol) were chosen to allow a(More)
Computational methods to predict pK(a) values and partition coefficients of drug molecules based on linear free energy relationships (LFERs) rely largely on the principles of independence and additivity of the functional group contributions in each molecule to the overall free energy. Nonadditivities in functional group contributions are often seen when(More)
Molecular interactions and orientations responsible for differences in 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayer partitioning of three structurally related drug-like molecules (4-ethylphenol, phenethylamine, and tyramine) were investigated. This work is based on previously reported molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that determined their(More)
Accurate determination of intrinsic permeability coefficients is critical to the development of structure-permeability relationships and liposomal delivery systems. The apparent release rate of a drug from liposomes may reflect not only its intrinsic permeability coefficient and barrier properties but also a variety of underlying equilibria including drug(More)
Mixtures of poly(ethylene glycols) (PEGs) with polysorbate 80 are often used to dissolve poorly water-soluble drugs in dosage forms, where polysorbate 80 helps either in enhancing dispersion or in inhibiting precipitation of drugs once the solution is mixed with water. Binary phase diagrams of polysorbate 80 with several low molecular weight PEGs and a(More)
We report herein a series of substituted N-(1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-5-yl)pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-amines as inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 tyrosine kinase. Through structure-activity relationship studies, biochemical potency, pharmacokinetics, and kinase selectivity were optimized to afford BMS-645737 (13), a compound(More)
5-Isopropyl-6-(5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-N-(2-methyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-5-yl)pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-amine (BMS-645737) is a potent and selective vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 antagonist. In this study, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and NMR were used to investigate the biotransformation of BMS-645737 in(More)
Previous work with low passage synchronized human foreskin fibroblast cell populations has indicated that benzo[alpha]pyrene (BP) can induce a carcinogenic event [3]. BP additionally has shown to damage DNA in log-arithmically growing low passage cultures [9]. High passage cells, on the other hand, seem to be refractory to transformation by BP, even though(More)