Ravindra K Gupta

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The recently identified restriction factor tetherin/BST-2/CD317 is an interferon-inducible trans-membrane protein that restricts HIV-1 particle release in the absence of the HIV-1 countermeasure viral protein U (Vpu). It is known that Tantalus monkey CV1 cells can be rendered non-permissive to HIV-1 release upon stimulation with type 1 interferon, despite(More)
Tetherin is an IFN-inducible restriction factor that inhibits HIV-1 particle release in the absence of the HIV-1 countermeasure, viral protein U (Vpu). Although ubiquitous in HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency viruses from chimpanzees, greater spot nosed monkeys, mustached monkeys, and Mona monkeys, other primate lentiviruses do not encode a Vpu protein.(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of congenital infections worldwide. In the developed world, following the virtual elimination of circulating rubella, it is the commonest nongenetic cause of childhood hearing loss and an important cause of neurodevelopmental delay. The seroprevalence of CMV in adults and the incidence of congenital CMV(More)
BACKGROUND The emergence and spread of high levels of HIV-1 drug resistance in resource-limited settings where combination antiretroviral treatment has been scaled up could compromise the effectiveness of national HIV treatment programmes. We aimed to estimate changes in the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance in treatment-naive individuals with HIV since(More)
Antiretroviral-therapy rollout in resource-poor countries is often associated with limited, if any, HIV-RNA monitoring. The effect of variable monitoring on the emergence of resistance after therapy with commonly used drug combinations was assessed by systematic review of studies reporting resistance in patients infected with HIV with a CD4 count of fewer(More)
BACKGROUND Resistance to antiretroviral combination therapy is associated with increased mortality. Understanding the relative risks of emerging resistance to first-line therapy is of importance for both resource-rich and resource-poor settings. METHODS We undertook an overview of clinical trials of adults receiving first-line highly active antiretroviral(More)
To the Editor: Widespread outbreaks of influenza A (H5N1) in poultry and severe infections in humans have raised the possibility of an influenza pandemic. The 3 influenza A pandemics of the 20th century (1) were associated with considerable socioeconomic disruption as well as many deaths and pressure on health services. Experiences in the United States(More)
Rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited countries has been identified as a global public health priority. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment in the industrialised world is routinely accompanied by regular virological monitoring. By contrast, the implementation of ART in resource-limited settings requires use of standard first-(More)
BACKGROUND Four-corner fusion of the wrist is an option for management of non-union scaphoid with painful arthritis of the wrist. Various surgical techniques have been devised for four-corner fusion, with inconsistent results. We present our experience of four-corner fusion achieved using a standard H-plate, designed originally for anterior cervical(More)