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The magnetization transfer ratio of the lumbar discs was spatially quantified from age-matched subjects and the nucleus pulposus magnetization transfer ratio was correlated with T2-weighted Pfirrmann grades. A moderate and significant linear correlation between magnetization transfer ratio and Pfirrmann grades was observed, suggesting that nucleus pulposus(More)
PURPOSE To develop a novel pulse sequence called spin-locked echo planar imaging (EPI), or (SLEPI), to perform rapid T1rho-weighted MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS SLEPI images were used to calculate T1rho maps in two healthy volunteers imaged on a 1.5-T Sonata Siemens MRI scanner. The head and extremity coils were used for imaging the brain and blood in the(More)
The application of T1 in the rotating frame (T1rho) to functional MRI in humans was studied at 3 T. Increases in neural activity increased parenchymal T1rho. Modeling suggested that cerebral blood volume mediated this increase. A pulse sequence named spin-locked echo planar imaging (SLEPI) that produces both T1rho and T2* contrast was developed and used in(More)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate are implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric and substance abuse conditions, but their spectral overlap with other resonances makes them a challenge to quantify in humans. Gabapentin, marketed for the treatment of seizures and neuropathic pain, has been shown to increase in vivo GABA concentration in the brain of(More)
Altered antioxidant status has been reported in schizophrenia. The glutathione (GSH) redox system is important for reducing oxidative stress. GSH, a radical scavenger, is converted to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) through glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and converted back to GSH by glutathione reductase (GR). Measurements of GSH, GSSG and its related enzymatic(More)
Myo-Inositol (MI) is one of the most abundant metabolites in the human brain located mainly in glial cells and functions as an osmolyte. The concentration of MI is altered in many brain disorders including Alzheimer's disease and brain tumors. Currently available magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods for measuring MI are limited to low spatial(More)
Glutamate, a major neurotransmitter in the brain, shows a pH- and concentration-dependent chemical exchange saturation transfer effect (GluCEST) between its amine group and bulk water, with potential for in vivo imaging by nuclear magnetic resonance. GluCEST asymmetry is observed ∼3 p.p.m. downfield from bulk water. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in the(More)
T1rho-weighted MRI is a novel basis for generating tissue contrast. However, it suffers from sensitivity to B1 inhomogeneity. First, excitation with a spatially varying B1 causes flip-angle artifacts and second, spin locking with an inhomogeneous B1 results in non-uniform T1rho contrast. In this study, we overcome the former complication with a specially(More)
Significant artifacts arise in T(1rho)-weighted imaging when nutation angles suffer small deviations from their expected values. These artifacts vary with spin-locking time and amplitude, severely limiting attempts to perform quantitative imaging or measurement of T(1rho) relaxation times. A theoretical model explaining the origin of these artifacts is(More)
PURPOSE To develop a T1rho-prepared, balanced gradient echo (b-GRE) pulse sequence for rapid three-dimensional (3D) T1rho relaxation mapping within the time constraints of a clinical exam (<10 minutes), examine the effect of acquisition on the measured T1rho relaxation time and optimize 3D T1rho pulse sequences for the knee joint and spine. MATERIALS AND(More)