Ravi Shankar Akundi

Learn More
BACKGROUND PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is linked to recessive Parkinsonism (EOPD). Pink1 deletion results in impaired dopamine (DA) release and decreased mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of mice. To reveal additional mechanisms of Pink1-related dopaminergic dysfunction, we studied Ca²+ vulnerability of purified brain mitochondria, DA levels and(More)
OBJECTIVE Periventricular white matter injury (PWMI) is the major cause of cerebral palsy and cognitive impairment in prematurely born infants. PWMI is characterized by reductions in cerebral myelination and cerebrocortical volumes and is associated with secondary ventriculomegaly. In neonatal rodents, these features of PWMI can be induced by rearing in(More)
Brain inflammation is a common occurrence following responses to varied insults such as bacterial infections, stroke, traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disorders. A common mediator for these varied inflammatory responses is prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), produced by the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenases (COX) 1 and 2. Previous attempts to reduce(More)
Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a widely distributed neurotransmitter which is involved in neuroimmunomodulatory processes. Previously, it has been demonstrated that 5-HT may induce interleukin (IL)-6 expression in primary rat hippocampal astrocytes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the molecular pathways underlying this induction(More)
Mutations in the PARK6 gene coding for PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause recessive early-onset Parkinsonism. Although PINK1 and Parkin promote the degradation of depolarized mitochondria in cultured cells, little is known about changes in signaling pathways that may additionally contribute to dopamine neuron loss in recessive Parkinsonism. Accumulating(More)
Microglia are the major cell type involved in neuroinflammatory events in brain diseases such as encephalitis, stroke, and neurodegenerative disorders, and contribute significantly to the release of prostaglandins (PGs) during neuronal insults. In this report, we studied the immediate-early intracellular signalling pathways in microglia, following bacterial(More)
Adenosine binds to a class of G-protein coupled receptors, which are further distinguished as A(1), A(2a), A(2b) and A(3) adenosine receptors. As we have shown earlier, the stable adenosine analogue NECA (N6-(R)-phenylisopropyladenosine) stimulates IL-6 expression in the human astrocytoma cell line U373 MG via the A(2b) receptor. The mechanism by which NECA(More)
Trichloroethylene, a common industrial solvent and a metabolic precursor of chloral hydrate, occurs widely in the environment. Chloral hydrate, which is also used as a hypnotic, has been found to condense spontaneously with tryptamine, in vivo, to give rise to a highly unpolar 1-trichloromethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (TaClo) that has a structural(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence from human and animal research that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 3 receptor antagonists, particularly tropisetron, exert analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. We have demonstrated that tropisetron inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha and interleukin-(IL-)1beta release in primary human(More)
There is evidence from both human and animal research that 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, particularly tropisetron, exert analgesic and antiinflammatory effects. However, the underlying mechanisms of these effects including the expression of 5-HT3 receptors in cells of the immune system have not yet been investigated in detail.(More)