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The basal forebrain cholinergic system is a critical component of the neurobiological substrates underlying attentional function. Orexin neurons are important for arousal and maintenance of wakefulness and are found in the area of the hypothalamus previously shown to project to the basal forebrain. We used dual-probe in vivo microdialysis in rats to test(More)
Depressive illness is associated with changes in amygdalar volume, and stressful life events are known to precipitate depressive episodes in this patient population. Stress affects amygdalar synaptic plasticity and several neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in stress-mediated changes in the brain, including the glutamatergic system. However, the(More)
Orexin/hypocretin neurons of the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area project to a diverse array of brain regions and are responsive to a variety of psychostimulant drugs. It has been shown that orexin neurons are activated by systemic nicotine administration suggesting a possible orexinergic contribution to the effects of this drug on arousal and(More)
The hypothalamus is a prominent target of nicotine action. We have previously shown that acute systemic nicotine treatment induces Fos expression in the lateral hypothalamus and perifornical area (LH/PFA), with orexin/hypocretin neurons being particularly responsive. However, the neurochemical correlates of acute nicotine treatment in the LH/PFA have not(More)
The hypothalamus is a prominent central site of action of nicotine but the phenotype of nicotine-sensitive neurons in this region has not been fully described. Hypothalamic orexin neurons are important regulators of state-dependent behavior, arousal and feeding. Here, we treated rats with acute nicotine and quantitated Fos expression as a marker of neuronal(More)
Sleep deprivation (SD) results in increased electroencephalographic (EEG) delta power during subsequent non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) and is associated with changes in the expression of circadian clock-related genes in the cerebral cortex. The increase of NREMS delta power as a function of previous wake duration varies among inbred mouse strains. We(More)
Several convergent lines of evidence point to the amygdala as a key site of plasticity underlying most forms of fear conditioning. Studies have shown that chronic physical activity, such as wheel running, can alter learning in a variety of contexts, including aversive conditioning. The ability of chronic wheel running (WR) to alter both behavioral(More)
Although the neural circuitry underlying homeostatic sleep regulation is little understood, cortical neurons immunoreactive for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1) have been proposed to be involved in this physiological process. By systematically manipulating the durations of sleep deprivation and subsequent recovery(More)
We recently demonstrated that Fos is induced in a subpopulation of cortical neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-immunoreactive neurons in three rodent species both during spontaneous sleep (SS) and recovery sleep (RS) after a period of sleep deprivation (SD); the proportion of cortical Fos(+)/nNOS neurons was significantly correlated with non-REM (NREM)(More)
Caffeine is a widely self-administered psychostimulant with purported neuroprotective and procognitive effects in rodent models of aging. The cholinergic basal forebrain is important for arousal and attention and is implicated in age-related cognitive decline. Accordingly, we determined the effects of caffeine on cholinergic neuron activation in the rat(More)
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