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Advancement in our understanding of the biology of adult stem cells and their therapeutic potential relies heavily on meaningful functional assays that can identify and measure stem cell activity in vivo and in vitro. In the mammalian nervous system, neural stem cells (NSCs) are often studied using a culture system referred to as the neurosphere assay. We(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) is a growth factor-activated transforming lipid (and protein) kinase, involved in cell motility and invasion, that has multiple effectors. Relatively little is known about its expression and enzymatic activity in human breast cancer. Since growth factor receptors are amplified in breast cancer, and the tumor suppressor(More)
The bone marrow (BM) of numerous species, including rodents and man, contains a rare population of cells termed marrow stromal cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Given the ability of these cells to differentiate into cells of the osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages, there is considerable interest in utilizing MSCs in a broad repertoire of(More)
Cell therapy is poised to play an enormous role in regenerative medicine. However, little guidance is being made available to academic and industrial entities in the start-up phase. In this technical review, members of the International Society for Cell Therapy provide guidance in developing commercializable autologous and patient-specific manufacturing(More)
Human bone marrow (BM) contains a population of non-hematopoietic stem cells also termed stromal cells, mesenchymal cells or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). These cells have unique stem cell-like properties including their ability to self-renew, differentiate into multiple tissue types, and modulate immune cell responses through paracrine(More)
Vascular abnormalities are a common component of eye diseases that often lead to vision loss. Vaso-obliteration is associated with inherited retinal degenerations, since photoreceptor atrophy lowers local metabolic demands and vascular support to those regions is no longer required. Given the degree of neurovascular crosstalk in the retina, it may be(More)
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