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OBJECTIVES Recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have highlighted the wartime effect of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The reason for the prominence of TBI in these particular conflicts as opposed to others is unclear but may result from the increased survivability of blast due to improvements in body armor. In the military context blunt,(More)
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury is the most prevalent military injury in Iraq and Afghanistan, yet little is known about the mechanical effects of blasts on the human head, and still less is known about how personal protective equipment affects the brain's response to blasts. In this study we investigated the effect of the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH)(More)
The Center for Simulating Dynamic Response of Materials at the California Institute of Technology is constructing a virtual shock physics facility for studying the response of various target materials to very strong shocks. The Virtual Test Facility (VTF) is an end-to-end, fully three-dimensional simulation of the detonation of high explosives (HE), shock(More)
The effect of blast on biological tissue is well documented for particular organ systems such as the lung. This is not the case for the CNS, where the mechanism of CNS injury following a detonation and blast wave is unclear. The effect of blast on traumatic brain injury (TBI) has come into particular focus with the Global War on Terror and Operation Iraqi(More)
A Virtual Test Facility (VTF) for studying the three-dimensional dynamic response of solid materials subject to strong shock and detonation waves has been constructed as part of the research program of the Center for Simulating the Dynamic Response of Materials at the California Institute of Technology. The compressible fluid flow is simulated with a(More)
Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury.(More)
  • H N G Wadley, K P Dharmasena, M Y He, R M Mcmeeking, A G Evans, T Bui-Thanh +1 other
We explore the feasibility of cellular materials concepts for passive and active mitigation of blast over-pressures. The passive approach requires a cellular medium that compresses at nominally constant stress and dissipates the kinetic energy acquired by an attached buffer plate. Provided the cellular material is not compressed beyond its densification(More)
In this paper, we show that bone piezoelectricity-a phenomenon in which bone polarizes electrically in response to an applied mechanical stress and produces a short-range electric field-may be a source of intense blast-induced electric fields in the brain, with magnitudes and timescales comparable to fields with known neurological effects. We compute the(More)
Direct real-time visualization and measurement of laser-driven shock generation, propagation, and 2D focusing in a sample are demonstrated. A substantial increase of the pressure at the convergence of the cylindrical acoustic shock front is observed experimentally and simulated numerically. Single-shot acquisitions using a streak camera reveal that at the(More)