Raul R. Silva

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BACKGROUND The literature on acoustic measures of voice in depression is reviewed. Authors have separated results derived from studies of automatic speech, such as counting or reading, from free speech. Free speech requires cognitive activity such as word finding and discourse planning in addition to the motor activity of automatic speech. Also, results(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examined the experiential factors and interacting vulnerabilities that contribute to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents. METHOD Of 100 consecutive referrals to an inner-city child and adolescent psychiatry clinic, 59 had experienced a trauma that qualified as a precipitant of PTSD. For(More)
OBJECTIVES The primary objective was to compare the differences in clinical efficacy of the starting dose of Ritalin LA (20mg) to the starting dose of Concerta (18mg), in a laboratory school setting for the duration of an entire school day. Secondary objectives were to compare Ritalin LA 20mg with Concerta 36mg, and Ritalin LA and both Concerta doses versus(More)
The purpose of this paper is to assess how 29 different environmental factors affected Tourette symptomatology in 14 children and adolescents (6.6-14.5 years; mean 10.3) who had never received any medication for their disorder. Assessment was based on patients' responses to the Tourette Syndrome (TS) Questionnaire. Eleven different factors were associated(More)
Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescence published from 2000 to 2011 indicate that adolescents are at greater risk of experiencing trauma than either adults or children, and that the prevalence of PTSD among adolescents is 3-57%. Age, gender, type of trauma, and repeated trauma are discussed as factors related to the increased rates of(More)
Dopamine receptor antagonists, particularly haloperidol, have been the most effective medications in currently available double-blind placebo-controlled studies for treating the disruptive behaviors often associated with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). The rationale for trying risperidone in this population includes its dopamine-blocking activity;(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess changes in symptomatology of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with extended-release dexmethylphenidate (d-MPHER) versus placebo in a laboratory classroom setting. METHODS This double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study randomized 54 children 6-12 years of age, stabilized on(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to compare efficacy and safety of two long-acting formulations of methylphenidate (MPH) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school-age children. METHODS Children 6-12 years of age diagnosed with ADHD and stabilized on MPH (20-40 mg/day) participated in a five-way, randomized, placebo-controlled,(More)
The stimulants have been the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment for over fifty years. Methylphenidate is the most frequently prescribed of the stimulant agents. In the past, one of the main drawbacks of these agents was the abbreviated duration of action. Over the last few years three longer acting methylphenidate preparations have been released to the(More)
DSM IV includes three clusters of items that are used to establish diagnoses for the Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Attention Deficit, Conduct, and Oppositional Defiant. In this report, we examine the feasibility of using the items in each cluster to form a rating scale. We studied eighty-four consecutive school-aged referrals to an inner-city child and(More)