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Teasing preparations of cat extraocular muscles (EOM) were used to study the arrangement of muscle fibers and the distribution of the different cholinesterase-positive sites, i.e. (1) large motor endplates, (2) small motor endings of the 'en grappe' type, (3) myotendinous junctions and (4) myomyous junctions. The distribution of these(More)
PURPOSE To analyze palisade endings and their end organs, the so-called innervated myotendinous cylinders (IMCs), of human extraocular muscle (EOM) in more detail and to clarify with the help of double-fluorescent labeling and electron microscopy whether terminals in IMCs are sensory, serving proprioception. METHODS EOMs obtained from a donated cadaver(More)
Innervated myotendinous cylinders (IMCs) were for the first time described in a sheep extraocular muscle (EOMs). They were found at the distal myotendinous junction of a medial rectus and were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. The IMCs are enveloped by a multi-layered capsule of fibrocytes and each contains the terminal portion of(More)
Carbocyanines (DiI, DiA, DiO) are able to travel along membranes by diffusion and therefore have been used as postmortem neuronal tracers in aldehyde-fixed tissues. Surprisingly, detailed data on the influence of different parameters on tracing distances are still missing. This study was carried out to optimize tracing procedures and to reveal the validity(More)
PURPOSE To classify muscle fibers of human extraocular muscle (hEOM) and to compare them to previous studies on hEOM, as well as to nonhuman EOM classification schemes and skeletal muscle fiber types. METHODS Muscle fibers cut in different muscle planes were followed on consecutive cross sections and typed with regard to their oxidative profile in(More)
Previous tracer studies have revealed the sacculus to be connected to the vestibular and cochlear nuclei in the guinea pig. Due to its own innervation pattern, an anterior and posterior part of the sacculus can be distinguished. The present study investigated whether the two parts differ concerning their fiber contribution to the vestibulo-cochlear(More)
The sensory apparatus of the extraocular muscles attains special interest because of the great variation among different species with respect to the proprioceptors. The sensory innervation of the guinea pig extraocular muscles, lacking both muscle spindles and tendon organs, was investigated with a fluorescence double-labelling method. Primary sensory(More)
PURPOSE To examine the number and distribution of muscle spindles in all extraocular muscles (EOMs) in humans. METHODS Thirty-six EOMs were obtained after death from three persons 67, 72, and 83 years of age. Serial sections were made throughout the length of these muscles. Consecutive sections were stained with different methods. To discriminate true(More)
The central course and the projections of the first and the second cervical dorsal root ganglia and of suboccipital muscle primary afferent fibers in the guinea pig were studied by means of anterograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA/HRP) or aqueous solution of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Injections of WGA/HRP(More)