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A B-cell epitope is the three-dimensional structure within an antigen that can be bound to the variable region of an antibody. The prediction of B-cell epitopes is highly desirable for various immunological applications, but has presented a set of unique challenges to the bioinformatics and immunology communities. Improving the accuracy of B-cell epitope(More)
The first subatomic resolution structure of a 36 kDa protein [aldose reductase (AR)] is presented. AR was cocrystallized at pH 5.0 with its cofactor NADP+ and inhibitor IDD 594, a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of diabetic complications. X-ray diffraction data were collected up to 0.62 A resolution and treated up to 0.66 A resolution. Anisotropic(More)
We present results of the modeling for the hydrolysis reaction of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) in the RAS-GAP protein complex using essentially ab initio quantum chemistry methods. One of the approaches considers a supermolecular cluster composed of 150 atoms at a consistent quantum level. Another is a hybrid QM/MM method based on the effective fragment(More)
Immune evasion strategies often shape the immunogenicity of parasite components. We recently found that the N-terminal extension of the major subunit of Echinococcus granulosus antigen B (AgB), the causative agent of hydatid disease, concentrates the immunoreactive B cell epitopes of the native molecule. The nature of this immunodominance was analyzed using(More)
Expression of a retroviral protein, Gag, in mammalian cells is sufficient for assembly of immature virus-like particles (VLPs). VLP assembly is mediated largely by interactions between the capsid (CA) domains of Gag molecules but is facilitated by binding of the nucleocapsid (NC) domain to nucleic acid. We have investigated the role of SP1, a spacer between(More)
The determination of several of aldose reductase-inhibitor complexes at subatomic resolution has revealed new structural details, including the specific interatomic contacts involved in inhibitor binding. In this article, we review the structures of the complexes of ALR2 with IDD 594 (resolution: 0.66 Å, IC50 (concentration of the inhibitor that produced(More)
Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are a major class of phase II detoxifying enzymes that conjugate glutathione to electrophiles. Their involvement in the degradation of chemotherapeutic agents, which contributes to drug resistance, makes this family of enzymes potential targets for therapeutic agents. This study generates, by homology modeling, a 3-D(More)
Plasmodium falciparum is the major causative agent of malaria, a disease of worldwide importance. Resistance to current drugs such as chloroquine and mefloquine is spreading at an alarming rate, and our antimalarial armamentarium is almost depleted. The malarial parasite encodes two homologous aspartic proteases, plasmepsins I and II, which are essential(More)
Many of the proteins that mediate cell adhesion processes processes-fibronectin, fibrinogen, vitronectin, von Willebrand factor, osteopontin, laminin and various collagens--contain the amino acid sequence Arg-Gly-Asp. Short peptides that include this sequence have been shown to inhibit the interactions of cell adhesion proteins with their receptors and to(More)
Cathepsin D (EC is a lysosomal protease suspected to play important roles in protein catabolism, antigen processing, degenerative diseases, and breast cancer progression. Determination of the crystal structures of cathepsin D and a complex with pepstatin at 2.5 A resolution provides insights into inhibitor binding and lysosomal targeting for this(More)