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The use of small fields in radiotherapy techniques has increased substantially, in particular in stereotactic treatments and large uniform or nonuniform fields that are composed of small fields such as for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). This has been facilitated by the increased availability of standard and add-on multileaf collimators and a(More)
Absolute dosimetry with ionization chambers of the narrow photon fields used in stereotactic techniques and IMRT beamlets is constrained by lack of electron equilibrium in the radiation field. It is questionable that stopping-power ratio in dosimetry protocols, obtained for broad photon beams and quasi-electron equilibrium conditions, can be used in the(More)
The experimental dosimetry of a high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir source used for the brachytherapy of peripheral vessels is reported. The direct determination of the reference air kerma rate Kr agrees, within the experimental uncertainty, with the results obtained by a well ionization chamber calibrated at the NIST and the manufacturer's certification. A highly(More)
Radial dose functions g(r) in water around 103Pd, 125I, 169Yb and 192Ir brachytherapy sources were estimated by means of the EGS4 simulation system and extensively compared with experimental as well as with theoretical results. The DLC-136/PHOTX cross section library, water molecular form factors, bound Compton scattering and Doppler broadening of the(More)
Anisotropy functions for 169Yb sources used in interstitial brachytherapy are investigated. A comprehensive study of several factors affecting the angular dose distribution around four 169Yb seed models (Amersham International) has been undertaken. Absolute dose rates around 169Yb seed models 5, 8a, 8b and X1267 have been estimated by means of the EGS4(More)
Reference dosimetry of photon fields is a well-established subject and currently available protocols (such as the IAEA TRS-398 and AAPM TG-51) provide methods for converting the ionization chamber (IC) reading into dose to water, provided reference conditions of charged particle equilibrium (CPE) are fulfilled. But these protocols cannot deal with the(More)
Anisotropy functions for low energy interstitial brachytherapy sources are examined. Absolute dose rates around 103Pd seed model 200 and 125I seed models 6702 and 6711 have been estimated by means of the EGS4 Monte Carlo simulation system. The DLC-136/PHOTX cross section library, water molecular form factors, bound Compton scattering and Doppler broadening(More)
An exhaustive revision of dosimetry data for 192Ir, 125I, 103Pd and 169Yb brachytherapy sources has been performed by means of the EGS4 simulation system. The DLC-136/PHOTX cross section library, water molecular form factors, bound Compton scattering and Doppler broadening of the Compton-scattered photon energy were considered in the calculations. The(More)
The effect of wall chamber attenuation and scattering is one of the most important corrections that must be determined when the linear interpolation method between two calibration factors of an ionization chamber is used. For spherical ionization chambers the corresponding correction factors A(w) have to be determined by a non-linear trend of the response(More)
A liquid chromatographic method was developed for the separation of six related triterpenoid saponins in Maesa balansae extracts with different purity, active against leishmaniasis. As stationary phase a Hypersil BDS C18 column (3 microm), 100 x 4.6 mm was used. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile, 5% (m/v) ammonium acetate, pH 6.5 and(More)