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Nodal segment explants of Ilex paraguariensis, collected from greenhouse-grown plants, were found to contain endophytic bacteria. After culturing in bioreactors, 16 rRNA gene analyses and analytical profile index biochemical tests were used to identify these bacteria as Stenotrophomonas malthophilia. The presence of bacterial cells in the intercellular… (More)
Symmetric and antisymmetric distance matrices in the single agent traveling salesman problem (TSP) are not the only distance matrices to generate elementary landscapes for " swap " and " 2-opt " neighborhoods.
We study the fundamental relation between conjugation and right (left) multiplication of permutations. In the general context of neighborhood search for an incumbent solution, we emphasize the uniqueness of the multiplicative move in contrast to the non-uniqueness of the con-jugative move. A formal closed relationship is given and discussed for the general… (More)
This paper incorporates an option value into deforestation policy analysis. Similar to an option value in finance, the option value here reflects the advantage to delaying irreversible species extinction until more information about the uncertain value of species is known. The return from species is modeled as a stochastic flow of benefits which ceases if… (More)