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Nodal segment explants of Ilex paraguariensis, collected from greenhouse-grown plants, were found to contain endophytic bacteria. After culturing in bioreactors, 16 rRNA gene analyses and analytical profile index biochemical tests were used to identify these bacteria as Stenotrophomonas malthophilia. The presence of bacterial cells in the intercellular(More)
Ilex paraguariensis plants were subjected to progressive soil water deficit, and differential display (DD) was used to analyse gene expression in leaves to characterise physiological responses to mild and severe water deficits. A cDNA fragment showing strong homology with the flavoprotein subunit (SDH1) of succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (succinate(More)
Reverse transcription of RNA followed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is to date the most reliable method for gene expression studies. However, to control the errors introduced along the numerous experimental procedures, it requires a normalization using internal reference genes with stable expression. To address this issue, nine candidate reference(More)
This paper incorporates an option value into deforestation policy analysis. Similar to an option value in finance, the option value here reflects the advantage to delaying irreversible species extinction until more information about the uncertain value of species is known. The return from species is modeled as a stochastic flow of benefits which ceases if(More)
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