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Childhood obesity is associated with a constellation of metabolic derangements including glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, referred to as metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate genetic and environmental factors contributing to the metabolic syndrome in Hispanic children. Metabolic syndrome, defined as having(More)
OBJECTIVE To quantitate insulin sensitivity in lean and obese nondiabetic baboons and examine the underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms responsible for impaired insulin action to characterize a baboon model of insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty baboons received a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with skeletal muscle and visceral(More)
UNLABELLED Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in hepatocytes, which may also trigger cirrhosis. The mechanisms of NAFLD are not fully understood, but insulin resistance has been proposed as a key determinant. AIMS To determine the TG content and long chain fatty acyl CoA composition profile in(More)
BACKGROUND Non-human primates are valuable models for the study of insulin resistance and human obesity. In baboons, insulin sensitivity levels can be evaluated directly with the euglycemic clamp and is highly predicted by adiposity, metabolic markers of obesity and impaired glucose metabolism (i.e. percent body fat by DXA and HbA1c). However, a simple(More)
Both major forms of diabetes mellitus (DM) involve β-cell destruction and dysfunction. New treatment strategies have focused on replenishing the deficiency of β-cell mass common to both major forms of diabetes by islet transplantation or β-cell regeneration. The pancreas, not the liver, is the ideal organ for islet regeneration, because it is the natural(More)
Loss of function mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB pathway resulted in hyperphagia and morbid obesity in human and rodents. Conversely, peripheral or central stimulation of TrkB by its natural ligands BDNF or NT4 reduced body weight and food intake in mice, supporting the idea that TrkB is a key anorexigenic signal downstream of the(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is generally accompanied by increased food intake. OBJECTIVE We sought to identify the genes influencing variation in dietary macronutrient intakes in Mexican Americans. DESIGN We conducted a genome-wide scan by using data derived from food-frequency questionnaires in 816 participants from the San Antonio Family Heart Study. Household(More)
Although previous genome scans have searched for quantitative-trait loci (QTLs) influencing variation in blood pressure (BP), few have investigated the rate of change in BP over time as a phenotype. Here, we compare results from genomewide scans to localize QTLs for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BPs (SBP, DBP, and MBP, respectively) and for rates(More)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in the Republic of Mexico, and metabolic syndrome, a complex of CVD risk factors, is increasingly prevalent. To date, however, there have been few studies of the genetic epidemiology of metabolic syndrome in Mexico. As a first step in implementing the GEMM Family Study, a large, multicenter(More)
Obesity is associated with a complex systemic inflammatory reaction that has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Obesity also induces macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. Macrophages produce many of the pro inflammatory molecules released by adipose tissue and have been implicated in the development of(More)