Learn More
The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is a G protein-linked, 7-transmembrane domain (7-TMD) receptor that undergoes complex posttranslational processing unique to this glycoprotein receptor family. Due to its complex structure, TSHR appears to have unstable molecular integrity and a propensity toward over- or underactivity on the basis of point(More)
The TSH receptor (TSHR) is constitutively active and is further enhanced by TSH ligand binding or by stimulating TSHR antibodies (TSHR-Abs) as seen in Graves' disease. TSH is known to activate the thyroid epithelial cell via both Galphas-cAMP/protein kinase A/ERK and Galphaq-Akt/protein kinase C coupled signaling networks. The recent development of(More)
To examine thyrotropin (TSH) receptor homophilic interactions we fused the human TSH receptor (hTSHR) carboxyl terminus to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the corresponding chimeric cDNA was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Fluorescent TSH receptors on the plasma membrane were functional as assessed by TSH-induced cAMP synthesis. The binding of(More)
The osteoporosis associated with human hyperthyroidism has traditionally been attributed to elevated thyroid hormone levels. There is evidence, however, that thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is low in most hyperthyroid states, directly affects the skeleton. Importantly, Tshr-knockout mice are osteopenic. In order to determine whether low TSH levels(More)
Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies (TSHR-Abs) of the stimulating variety are the hallmark of Graves' disease. The presence of immune defects leading to synthesis of TSHR-Abs causes hyperthyroidism and is associated with other extrathyroidal manifestations. Further characterization of these antibodies has now been made possible by the generation of(More)
OBJECTIVE The molecular events that lead to human thyroid cell speciation remain incompletely characterized. It has been shown that overexpression of the regulatory transcription factors Pax8 and Nkx2-1 (ttf-1) directs murine embryonic stem (mES) cells to differentiate into thyroid follicular cells by initiating a transcriptional regulatory network. Such(More)
CCR7 is involved in the initiation of immune responses and has been recently implicated in the control of tolerance. To analyze the role of CCR7 in autoimmunity, we backcrossed CCR7(ko/ko) mice (in which ko signifies deficient) onto the autoimmune-prone NOD background. Surprisingly, NODCCR7(ko/ko) mice never developed diabetes, but showed severe(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the impact of transcriptional induction on thyroid follicular cell (TFC) differentiation from endodermally matured embryonic stem (ES) cells. The thyroid transcription factors-NKx2 homeobox 1 (NKx2-1, formerly called TTF-1) and Paired box gene 8 (Pax8)-are known to associate biochemically and synergistically in(More)
BACKGROUND The thyrotropin stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) with a large ectodomain. The ligand, TSH, acting via this receptor regulates thyroid growth and thyroid hormone production and secretion. The TSH receptor (TSHR) undergoes complex post-translational modifications including intramolecular cleavage and(More)