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Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies (TSHR-Abs) of the stimulating variety are the hallmark of Graves' disease. The presence of immune defects leading to synthesis of TSHR-Abs causes hyperthyroidism and is associated with other extrathyroidal manifestations. Further characterization of these antibodies has now been made possible by the generation of(More)
BACKGROUND The thyrotropin stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) with a large ectodomain. The ligand, TSH, acting via this receptor regulates thyroid growth and thyroid hormone production and secretion. The TSH receptor (TSHR) undergoes complex post-translational modifications including intramolecular cleavage and(More)
We recently described the direct effects of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) on bone and suggested that the bone loss in hyperthyroidism, hitherto attributed solely to elevated thyroid hormone levels, could at least in part arise from accompanying decrements in serum TSH. Recent studies on both mice and human subjects provide compelling evidence that(More)
The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) are female-predominant diseases with a ratio of approximately seven females to each male. X chromosome inactivation (XCI), an epigenetic phenomenon, has been suggested to be skewed in many such female patients with AITD. We analyzed female genomic DNA from 87 patients with Graves' disease (GD), 47 patients with(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the impact of transcriptional induction on thyroid follicular cell (TFC) differentiation from endodermally matured embryonic stem (ES) cells. The thyroid transcription factors-NKx2 homeobox 1 (NKx2-1, formerly called TTF-1) and Paired box gene 8 (Pax8)-are known to associate biochemically and synergistically in(More)
The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is a G protein-linked, 7-transmembrane domain (7-TMD) receptor that undergoes complex posttranslational processing unique to this glycoprotein receptor family. Due to its complex structure, TSHR appears to have unstable molecular integrity and a propensity toward over- or underactivity on the basis of point(More)
BACKGROUND We have shown that thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has a direct inhibitory effect on osteoclastic bone resorption and that TSH receptor (TSHR) null mice display osteoporosis. To determine the stage of osteoclast development at which TSH may exert its effect, we examined the influence of TSH and agonist TSHR antibodies (TSHR-Ab) on osteoclast(More)
We have shown that the anterior pituitary hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), can bypass the thyroid to exert a direct protective effect on the skeleton. Thus, we have suggested that a low TSH level may contribute to the bone loss of hyperthyroidism that has been attributed traditionally to high thyroid hormone levels. Earlier mouse genetic,(More)
The osteoporosis associated with human hyperthyroidism has traditionally been attributed to elevated thyroid hormone levels. There is evidence, however, that thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is low in most hyperthyroid states, directly affects the skeleton. Importantly, Tshr-knockout mice are osteopenic. In order to determine whether low TSH levels(More)