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In real-time PCR data analysis, the cycle threshold (CT) method is currently the gold standard. This method is based on an assumption of equal PCR efficiency in all reactions, and precision may suffer if this condition is not met. Nonlinear regression analysis (NLR) or curve fitting has therefore been suggested as an alternative to the cycle threshold(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the preventive effect of a milk drink fermented with multistrain probiotics on antibiotic associated diarrhoea (AAD). DESIGN Double-blind placebo controlled study. SETTING University Hospital of North Norway. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Of 853 patients treated with antibiotics, 87 met the inclusion criteria, and were randomized to(More)
BACKGROUND It has been documented that treatment with infliximab (IFX) induces remission in 1/3 of patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis (UC). Predictors of response could improve selection of patients with a higher probability of favorable outcome. AIM To determine predictor factors for the clinical outcome of IFX induction therapy in UC.(More)
We have previously reported that the dendritic cell (DC) functional index cytokine interleukin-12 was significantly decreased in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tissues. In this study, the DC infiltration pattern and the density of mature DCs (mDCs; labeled by anti-CD83 and anti-CD208) and immature DCs (iDCs; labeled by anti-CD1alpha) were characterized using(More)
OBJECTIVE The precise measurement of local tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) expression in tissue is important in understanding the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a sensitive, versatile method and is becoming a commonly used tool for the quantification of gene expression. The aim of this(More)
OBJECTIVE The mechanisms of action of infliximab (IFX) in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) are poorly understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and other cytokines in UC patients receiving IFX treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS The levels of TNF-alpha, interleukin(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of adalimumab on the induction of complete endoscopic healing and normalization of mucosal cytokine gene expression in patients with active Crohn's disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS A prospective, single-center study including 77 patients. All were examined by endoscopy before initiation of adalimumab induction therapy(More)
Cytokines have been suggested to be key factors in modulating immune response against tumorigenesis in the microenvironment. Therefore, characterization of cytokine expression along the colorectal adenoma–carcinoma sequence may add important information for understanding the immune-related mechanisms of the development of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). In this(More)
BACKGROUND Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have been associated with a T helper1 (TH1) and a TH2 cytokine profile, respectively. Recently, a TH17 lineage has been introduced, but their role in the inflammation of CD and UC is not fully understood. AIM To characterize the cytokines directing the TH17 cells and their interactions with TH1(More)
Adjacent mucosa may reflect the conflicting of host factors in response to the establishment or invasion of cancers. Characterization of anti-tumor immunity in this region may add help in understanding the immune-related mechanisms of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). In this study, adjacent non-tumor mucosa from 36 patients with colorectal adenoma (CRA), 26 with(More)