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Although the relation between red and processed meat intake and colorectal cancer has been reported in several epidemiologic studies, very few investigated the potential mechanisms. This study examined multiple potential mechanisms in a large U.S. prospective cohort with a detailed questionnaire on meat type and meat cooking methods linked to databases for(More)
Animal studies have shown that dietary intake of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), causes increased levels of tumors at several sites, particularly in the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, the role of dietary intake of BaP and cancer in humans is not clear. We created a BaP database of selected food products that could be(More)
BACKGROUND Red meat and processed meat have been associated with carcinogenesis at several anatomic sites, but no prospective study has examined meat intake in relation to a range of malignancies. We investigated whether red or processed meat intake increases cancer risk at a variety of sites. METHODS AND FINDINGS The National Institutes of Health(More)
BACKGROUND The occurrence of diabetes has greatly increased in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in Asia, as has the prevalence of overweight and obesity; in European-derived populations, overweight and obesity are established causes of diabetes. The shape of the association of overweight and obesity with diabetes risk and its overall impact(More)
BACKGROUND Although dietary fibre has been reported to have no association with colorectal adenoma and cancer, in some studies this topic remains controversial. METHODS We used a 137-item food frequency questionnaire to assess the relation of fibre intake and frequency of colorectal adenoma. The study was done within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and(More)
BACKGROUND African Americans (AA) suffer from an increased incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC). Environmental exposures including dietary habits likely contribute to a high burden of CRC, however, data on the dietary habits of AA is sparse. Diet might change the composition and the activities of the intestinal microbiota, in turn affecting(More)
The authors examined associations between meat consumption (type, cooking method, and related mutagens), heme iron, nitrite/nitrate, and prostate cancer in a cohort of 175,343 US men aged 50–71 years. During 9 years of follow-up (1995–2003), they ascertained 10,313 prostate cancer cases (1,102 advanced) and 419 fatal cases. Hazard ratios comparing the fifth(More)
Reported habits of red meat consumption, particularly red meat that has been cooked to the degree termed 'well-done', is a positive risk factor for colorectal cancer. Under high, pyrolytic temperatures, heterocyclic amines (HCA) and benzo[a]pyrene (BP) molecules can form inside and on the surface of red meat, respectively. These compounds are precursors(More)
Red and processed meat intake is associated with increased risks of both colorectal adenoma and cancer. Processed meats contain nitrate and nitrite, precursors of N-nitroso compounds (NOCs); furthermore, meats cooked at high temperatures contain heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Specific NOC, HCA and PAH are mutagens(More)
A high body mass index (BMI) is a major risk factor for several chronic diseases, but the biology underlying these associations is not well-understood. Dyslipidemia, inflammation, and elevated levels of growth factors and sex steroid hormones explain some of the increased disease risk, but other metabolic factors not yet identified may also play a role. In(More)