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Nonclaret disjunctional (ncd) is a kinesin-related microtubule motor protein required for meiotic and early mitotic chromosome distribution in Drosophila. ncd translocates on microtubules with the opposite polarity to kinesin, toward microtubule minus ends, and is associated with spindles in chromosome/spindle preparations. Here we report a new mutant of(More)
Nonclaret disjunctional (ncd) is a kinesin-related microtubule motor protein that is required for proper chromosome distribution in Drosophila. Despite its sequence similarity to kinesin heavy chain, ncd translocates with the opposite polarity as kinesin, toward microtubule minus ends. We have expressed different regions of the protein in bacteria and(More)
Several aspects of the effect of the KPQ deletion mutation on Na+ channel gating remain unresolved. We have analyzed the kinetics of the early and late currents by recording whole cell and single-channel currents in a human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line (HEK293) expressing wild-type and KPQ deletion mutation in cardiac Na+ channels. The rate of(More)
The role of inactivation as a central mechanism in blockade of the cardiac Na(+) channel by antiarrhythmic drugs remains uncertain. We have used whole-cell and single channel recordings to examine the block of wild-type and inactivation-deficient mutant cardiac Na(+) channels, IFM/QQQ, stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. We studied the open-channel blockers(More)
Mice lacking catecholamines die before birth, some with cardiovascular abnormalities. To investigate the role of catecholamines in development, embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) fetuses were cultured and heart rate monitored. Under optimal oxygenation, wild-type and catecholamine-deficient fetuses had the same initial heart rate (200-220 beats/min), which(More)
OBJECTIVE Prior studies of the modulation of the Na+ current by sympathetic stimulation have yielded controversial results. Separation of the Na+ and Ca2+ currents poses a problem in myocyte preparations. The gating of cloned Na+ channels is different in oocytes compared with mammalian expression systems. We have examined the sympathetic modulation of the(More)
Hypoxia is necessary for fetal development; however, excess hypoxia is detrimental. Hypoxia has been extensively studied in the near-term fetus, but less is known about earlier fetal effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the window of vulnerability to severe hypoxia, what organ system(s) is most sensitive, and why hypoxic fetuses die. We(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The biology of the pancreas is exquisitely complex and involves both endocrine and exocrine functions that are regulated by an integrated array of neural and hormonal processes. This review discusses recent developments in the regulation of both endocrine and exocrine secretion from the pancreas. RECENT FINDINGS New data suggest that(More)
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is secreted by neuroendocrine cells comprising 0.1%-0.5% of the mucosal cells in the upper small intestine. Using CCK promoter-driven green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in transgenic mice, we have applied immunofluorescence techniques to analyze the morphology of CCK cells. GFP and CCK colocalize in neuroendocrine cells with(More)
Amino acids stimulate cholecysto-kinin release through the Ca 2ϩ-sensing receptor. (CCK) is produced by discrete endocrine cells in the proximal small intestine and is released following the ingestion of food. CCK is the primary hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction and has potent effects on pancreatic secretion, gastric emptying, and satiety. In(More)