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OBJECTIVE To examine in vivo glutamatergic neurochemical alterations in the anterior cingulate cortex of pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) without major depressive disorder (MDD) versus pediatric patients with MDD without OCD and healthy controls. METHOD Single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic examinations of the(More)
BACKGROUND Neurobiologic abnormalities in medial thalamus have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We previously used multislice proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1-H MRSI) to identify localized functional neurochemical marker alterations in choline (Cho) in medial but not lateral thalamus in(More)
BACKGROUND Anterior cingulate cortex has been implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). With single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we reported reductions in anterior cingulate glutamatergic concentrations (grouped value of glutamate and glutamine) in 14 pediatric MDD patients versus 14 case-matched healthy control(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors investigated structural abnormalities in brain regions comprising cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical loops in pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHOD Volumes of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus and gray and white matter volumes of the anterior cingulate gyrus and superior frontal gyrus(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine in vivo glutamatergic neurochemical alterations in the anterior cingulate cortex of children with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD Single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic (H-MRS) examinations of the anterior cingulate cortex were conducted in 13 psychotropic-naïve children and adolescents with MDD and 13 age- and(More)
BACKGROUND Prior pilot investigation identified a larger pituitary gland volume (PGV) in pediatric patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) compared with healthy pediatric control subjects that was most prominent in boys with MDD. In this independent sample, we focus on gender differences in pituitary volume in a larger sample of pediatric patients(More)
Altered brain creatine-phosphocreatine levels might reflect changes in brain energy use and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure absolute concentrations of creatine-phosphocreatine in the right and left medial thalami in 18 pediatric(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormalities in the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To our knowledge, however, no prior study has measured pituitary gland volume in OCD. METHODS Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging studies were conducted in 31 psychotropic drug-naïve children(More)
Anxiety disorders are common disorders in childhood, and developmental differences must be considered when diagnosing and treating patients in this age group. Recent research has illuminated the course of childhood anxiety disorders, including how they can be precursors to continued anxiety and mood problems in adulthood. Recent studies of(More)
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