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Acknowledgements: This publication is part of The 2008 Review of The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The IUCN Red List is compiled and produced by the IUCN Species Programme based on contributions from a network of thousands of scientifi c experts around the world. These include members of the IUCN Species Survival Commission Specialist Groups, Red(More)
  • R Tong
  • 1991
In this paper I examine the epistemology and ethics of consensus, focusing on the ways in which decision makers use/misuse ethical expertise. The major questions I raise and tentative answers I give are the following: First, are the 'experts' really experts? My tentative answer is that they are bona fide experts who often represent specific interest groups.(More)
  • R Tong
  • 1998
In this paper I seek to distinguish a feminist virtue ethics of care from (1) justice ethics, (2) narrative ethics, (3) care ethics and (4) virtue ethics. I also connect this contemporary discussion of what makes a virtue ethics of care feminist to eighteenth and nineteenth century debates about male, female, and human virtue. In conclude that by focusing(More)
  • R Tong
  • 2001
This article addresses the issue of women as primary caregivers to children and the concept of "maternal practice." The idea of maternal practice guides mothers as they learn (1) how to meet their child's physical, psychological, and spiritual needs, and (2) how to make their child socially acceptable. Hindrances to maternal practice include severe poverty(More)
  • R Tong
  • 1995
This essay discusses the history of the "futility debate" and the motives that sometimes prompt health care professionals, health care providers, patients, and surrogates to take different sides in it. Changes in the health care system, financial responsibility shifts, technical medical advances, and medical care rationing are analyzed as contributors to(More)
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