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—In this paper, a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique for indoor optical wireless (OW) communication is proposed. The scheme is called optical spatial modulation (OSM). The key concept is based on spatial modulation (SM) technique. At each time instant, only one transmitter is active and the others are inactive. Each transmitter index(More)
Despite considerable effort, the state-space explosion problem remains an issue in the analysis of Markov models. Given structure, symbolic representations can result in very compact encoding of the models. However, a major obstacle for symbolic methods is the need to store the probability vector(s) explicitly in main memory. In this paper, we present a(More)
The paper presents a survey of out-of-core methods available for the analysis of large Markov chains on single workstations. First, we discuss the main sparse matrix storage schemes and review iterative methods for the solution of systems of linear equations typically used in disk-based methods. Next, various out-of-core approaches for the steady state(More)
We describe the dual-processor parallelisation of a symbolic (BDD-based) implementation of probabilistic model checking. We use multi-terminal BDDs (binary decision diagrams), which allow a compact representation of large, structured Markov chains. We show that they also provide a convenient block decomposition of the Markov chain which we use to implement(More)