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The myeloperoxidase enzyme (MPO) is expressed specifically in myeloid cells and catalyzes the formation of hypochlorous acid and other cytotoxic oxidants. We previously reported that two alleles of MPO exist which differ in promoter strength due to a base difference in an Alu-encoded hormone response element. The present study shows that the higher(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disorder of the CNS with both genetic and environmental contributing factors. Clinical symptoms are broadly characterized by initial onset, and progressive debilitating neurological impairment. In this study, RNA from MS chronic active and MS acute lesions was extracted, and compared with patient matched(More)
Demyelination and axonal loss have been described as the histological hallmarks of inflammatory lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS) and are the pathological correlates of persistent disability. However, the immune mechanisms underlying axonal damage in MS remain unknown. Here, we report the use of single chain-variable domain fragments (scFv) from clonally(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by autoimmune-mediated demyelination and neurodegeneration. The CNS of patients with MS harbors expanded clones of antigen-experienced B cells that reside in distinct compartments including the meninges, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and parenchyma. It is not(More)
Immunoglobulin A (IgA), the predominant immunoglobulin class in mucosal secretions, has been found in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study we examined the infiltration of clonally expanded IgA plasma cells in lesions of MS brains. Sequences of complementarity-determining region 3 of IgA variable heavy chain (V(H))(More)
In our laboratory, we have developed methods in real-time detection and quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) to analyse the relative levels of gene expression in post mortem brain tissues. We have then applied this method to examine differences in gene activity between normal white matter (NWM) and plaque tissue from multiple sclerosis (MS)(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of unknown origin that affects the central nervous system of an estimated 400,000 Americans. GBV-C or hepatitis G is a flavivirus that is found in the serum of 1-2% of blood donors. It was originally associated with hepatitis, but is now believed to be a relatively non-pathogenic lymphotropic virus. Fifty(More)
Retroviral infection of the central nervous system (CNS) causes chronic functional and morphological damage in a wide variety of mammals. Neuropathological studies have focused on subcortical pathology, however, the neocortex is also affected. Because studies of human CNS pathology have been limited to the use of material from terminal stages of disease, we(More)
Murine leukemia virus infection serves as a model for noninflammatory degeneration of the central nervous system (CNS). During the course of infection with either of the molecularly cloned viruses pNE-8 or ts-1, we observed that ts-1 spread twice as rapidly as pNE-8, and ascended higher in the neuraxis. Endothelial cells were infected first, followed by(More)
Central nervous system (CNS) damage occurs during retroviral infection in both man and animals. As a model of human disease, we studied the distribution and extent of CNS damage during retroviral infection with two molecularly cloned, neurotropic murine leukemia viruses. Both viruses mediate a spongiform encephalopathy involving predominantly the brainstem(More)
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