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BACKGROUND Higher levels of sodium intake are reported to be associated with higher blood pressure. Whether this relationship varies according to levels of sodium or potassium intake and in different populations is unknown. METHODS We studied 102,216 adults from 18 countries. Estimates of 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion were made from a single(More)
BACKGROUND Although the importance of detecting, treating, and controlling hypertension has been recognized for decades, the majority of patients with hypertension remain uncontrolled. The path from evidence to practice contains many potential barriers, but their role has not been reviewed systematically. This review aimed to synthesize and identify(More)
BACKGROUND Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) stage 2-3 is a premalignant lesion that can progress to cervical cancer in 10-20 years if untreated. OBJECTIVES To conduct systematic reviews of randomized and nonrandomized studies for effects of cryotherapy, loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), and cold knife conization (CKC) as treatment(More)
OBJECTIVE We evaluated the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of assessing the quality of evidence (QoE) using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING On completing two training exercises, participants worked independently as individual raters to assess the QoE of 16 outcomes. After(More)
Worldwide, there are ~18 million deaths each year from cardiovascular disease and at least 2-3 times as many experience non-fatal cardiovascular events. Numerous evidence-based prevention and management guideline recommendations for cardiovascular disease are available. However, significant gaps between the evidence and its implementation persist(More)
BACKGROUND WHO has targeted that medicines to prevent recurrent cardiovascular disease be available in 80% of communities and used by 50% of eligible individuals by 2025. We have previously reported that use of these medicines is very low, but now aim to assess how such low use relates to their lack of availability or poor affordability. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is suggested to play a key role in the development of atrial fibrillation through structural and electrical remodeling. This review aims to assess the effectiveness of blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the prevention of new onset atrial fibrillation. METHODS Electronic databases(More)
This paper presents evidence from research into health system challenges of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes in four Eastern Mediterranean countries: the occupied Palestinian territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. We address two questions. How has the health system in each country been conceptualised and organised to manage the provision of care for(More)
BACKGROUND The risk factors associated with fractures have been well-characterized in community dwelling populations, but have not been clearly defined in long-term care (LTC) settings. The objective of this review was to identify risk factors for fractures in LTC settings. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and CINAHL up to June(More)