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In recent years, honeybees (Apis mellifera) have been strangely disappearing from their hives, and strong colonies have suddenly become weak and died. The precise aetiology underlying the disappearance of the bees remains a mystery. However, during the same period, Nosema ceranae, a microsporidium of the Asian bee Apis cerana, seems to have colonized A.(More)
A multiplex PCR-based method, in which two small-subunit rRNA regions are simultaneously amplified in a single reaction, was designed for parallel detection of honeybee microsporidians (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae). Each of two pairs of primers exclusively amplified the 16S rRNA targeted gene of a specific microsporidian. The multiplex PCR assay was(More)
In this report, an experimental infection of Apis mellifera by Nosema ceranae, a newly reported microsporidian in this host is described. Nosema free honeybees were inoculated with 125,000 N. ceranae spores, isolated from heavily infected bees. The parasite species was identified by amplification and sequencing the SSUrRNA gene of the administered spores.(More)
As pollination is a critical process in both human-managed and natural terrestrial ecosystems, pollinators provide essential services to both nature and humans. Pollination is mainly due to the action of different insects, such as the bumblebee and the honeybee. These important ecological and economic roles have led to widespread concern over the recent(More)
Nosema ceranae is a Microsporidia recently described as a parasite in Apis mellifera honeybees in Europe. Due to the short time since its description, no epidemiological data are available. In this study, spore detection in both pollen baskets and pollen collected from commercial traps is described (PCM, TEM and PCR methods). Spore infectivity is shown(More)
The importance of transmission factor identification is of great epidemiological significance. The bee-eater (Merops apiaster) is a widely distributed insectivorous bird, locally abundant mainly in arid and semi-arid areas of southern Europe, northern Africa and western Asia but recently has been seen breeding in central Europe and Great Britain. Bee-eaters(More)
Honeybee colony collapse is a sanitary and ecological worldwide problem. The features of this syndrome are an unexplained disappearance of adult bees, a lack of brood attention, reduced colony strength, and heavy winter mortality without any previous evident pathological disturbances. To date there has not been a consensus about its origins. This report(More)
In this review, relevant data is presented on an emerging disease of the 21th century in European countries, caused by Nosema ceranae. Within a few years after it was detected in Spain in 2005, the rest of European countries that had technical capacity to differentiate Nosema apis from N. ceranae reported its presence. In a similar way as the initial(More)
Nosema ceranae is a relatively new and widespread parasite of the western honeybee Apis mellifera that provokes a new form of nosemosis. In comparison to Nosema apis, which has been infecting the honeybee for much longer, N. ceranae seems to have co-evolved less with this host, causing a more virulent disease. Given that N. apis and N. ceranae are obligate(More)
In recent years, a worldwide decline in the Apis mellifera populations has been detected in many regions, including Spain. This decline is thought to be related to the effects of pathogens or pesticides, although to what extent these factors are implicated is still not clear. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of honey bee colony depopulation(More)