Raquel Hernández

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Many animal viruses produce cytopathic effects in their host cells during a productive infection. While some virus infections can be assayed by the production of plaques, many viruses, while producing cytotoxicity, do not easily form plaques, or do not form plaques at all. Additionally, viruses within families such as the parvoviruses may have different(More)
There are 80 spikes on the surface of Sindbis virus arranged as an icosahedral surface lattice. Each spike consists of three copies of each of the glycoproteins E1 and E2. There are two glycosylation sites on E1 and two on E2. These four sites have been located by removal of the glycosylation recognition motifs using site-specific mutagenesis, followed by(More)
Alphaviruses have the ability to induce cell-cell fusion after exposure to acid pH. This observation has served as an article of proof that these membrane-containing viruses infect cells by fusion of the virus membrane with a host cell membrane upon exposure to acid pH after incorporation into a cell endosome. We have investigated the requirements for the(More)
Sindbis virus, which belongs to the family Togaviridae genus Alphavirus infects a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate cells. The initial steps of Sindbis virus infection involve attachment, penetration and uncoating. Two different pathways of infection have been proposed for Alphaviruses. One proposed mechanism involves receptor mediated virion(More)
The network structure of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels obtained by freezing-thawing cycles was investigated by solid-state (1)H low-field NMR spectroscopy. By the application of multiple-quantum NMR experiments, we obtain information about the segmental order parameter, which is directly related to the restrictions on chain motion (cross-links) formed(More)
One hundred eighty-seven implants were placed in the maxillary posterior areas of 44 partially edentulous patients (29 female; 15 male). The mean age was 62 years (range 36 to 82 years). Fifty-one of the 187 implants were placed in the pterygomaxillary area and further restored with fixed prostheses. The mean number of implants per prosthesis was 3.7 (range(More)
A comparative study between one and two Brånemark implants replacing a single molar was conducted. Forty-seven individuals comprised two groups of 22 patients treated with one implant and 25 with two implants. A total of 72 implants were placed, 66 (92%) in the mandible and six (8%) in the maxilla. After the first year of function, the success rate was 99%,(More)
Sindbis virus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. It is composed of 240 copies of three structural proteins: E1, E2, and capsid. These proteins form a mature virus particle composed of two nested T=4 icosahedral shells. A complex network of disulfide bonds in the E1 and E2 glycoproteins is developed through a series of structural intermediates as(More)
The alphaviruses are composed of two icosahedral protein shells, one nested within the other. A membrane bilayer derived from the host cell is sandwiched between the protein shells. The protein shells are attached to one another by protein domains which extend one of the proteins of the outer shell through the membrane bilayer to attach to the inner shell.(More)
A rare Sindbis virus anti-E1 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, Sin-33, was investigated to determine the mechanism of in vitro neutralization. A cryoelectron microscopic reconstruction of Sindbis virus (SVHR) neutralized with FAb from Sin-33 (FAb-33) revealed conformational changes on the surface of the virion at a resolution of 24 A. FAb-33 was found to(More)