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Natural killer T (NKT) cells recognize glycosphingolipids presented by CD1d molecules and have been linked to defense against microbial infections. Previously defined foreign glycosphingolipids recognized by NKT cells are uniquely found in nonpathogenic sphingomonas bacteria. Here we show that mouse and human NKT cells also recognized glycolipids,(More)
Woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are closely similar with respect to genomic organization, host antiviral responses, and pathobiology of the infection. T-cell immunity against viral nucleocapsid (HBcAg or WHcAg) has been shown to play a critical role in viral clearance and protection against infection. Here we show that(More)
We have recently shown that alpha-C-galactosylceramide (alpha-C-GalCer) stimulates invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and preferentially induces a T helper 1 (Th1)-type response in mice. However, alpha-C-GalCer was found to be a rather weak ligand against human iNKT cells in vitro. Therefore, in this study, we sought to identify a compound that(More)
Introduction of an aromatic group into the fatty acyl chain of alpha-GalCer modulates the activity and selectivity of IFN-gamma/IL-4 secretion through CD1d-mediated activation of NKT cells. Compound 14-16 are more potent than alpha-Galcer and biased for IFN-gamma than for IL-4. These new glycolipids may find use as adjuvants or as antimetastatic agents.
Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is a key element in the defense against viral infection because, in addition to a direct antiviral effect, it exhibits potent immunostimulatory activity. To investigate the function of this cytokine in the woodchuck model of chronic hepatitis B, the woodchuck IFN-alpha gene (IFNA) family was cloned and examined. The data(More)
Brefeldin A (BFA) rapidly blocks secretion, induces disassembly of the Golgi complex and causes a redistribution of Golgi components into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In addition to these effects on the exocytotic pathway, BFA has been shown to induce fusion of endosomal membranes with the trans-Golgi network in some cell types. To better understand the(More)
In humans, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells represent a small but significant population of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with a high degree of variability. In this study, pursuant to our goal of identifying an appropriate non-human primate model suitable for pre-clinical glycolipid testing, we evaluated the percentage and function of(More)
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