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Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common representative of a group of disorders known as synucleinopathies, in which misfolding and aggregation of α-synuclein (a-syn) in various brain regions is the major pathological hallmark. Indeed, the motor symptoms in PD are caused by a heterogeneous degeneration of brain neurons not only in substantia nigra pars(More)
Long lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission can be triggered by brief bursts of afferent stimulation, underlying long-term potentiation (LTP), and also by brief ischemia in a process known as i-LTP. The extent to which LTP and i-LTP rely on comparable cellular mechanisms remains unclear. Under physiological conditions, LTP induction drives transient(More)
It is widely accepted that Hebbian forms of plasticity mediate selective modifications in synaptic strength underlying information encoding in response to experience and circuit formation or refinement throughout development. Several complementary forms of homeostatic plasticity coordinate to keep Hebbian plasticity in check, frequently through the actions(More)
Neuroprotection is one of the prominent functions of the interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokine family, for which the underlying mechanism(s) are not fully understood. We have previously shown that neuroprotection and neuromodulation mediated by IL-6 require neuronal adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1) R) function. We now have investigated whether two other IL-6-type(More)
Phosphorylation of glutamate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by Protein Kinase A (PKA) is known to regulate AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking and stabilization at the postsynaptic membrane, which in turn is one of the key mechanisms by which synaptic transmission and plasticity are tuned. However, not much is known as(More)
The activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) leads to the loss of nitrogen from soil, pollution of water sources and elevated emissions of greenhouse gas. To date, eight AOA genomes are available in the public databases, seven are from the group I.1a of the Thaumarchaeota and only one is from the group I.1b, isolated from hot springs. Many soils are(More)
The incidence of the autoimmune disease, type 1 diabetes (T1D), has increased dramatically over the last half century in many developed countries and is particularly high in Finland and other Nordic countries. Along with genetic predisposition, environmental factors are thought to play a critical role in this increase. As with other autoimmune diseases, the(More)
The Park Grass experiment (PGE) in the UK has been ongoing since 1856. Its purpose is to study the response of biological communities to the long-term treatments and associated changes in soil parameters, particularly soil pH. In this study, soil samples were collected across pH gradient (pH 3.6–7) and a range of fertilizers (nitrogen as ammonium sulfate,(More)
Precise experimental methods to determine ligand-binding affinity are needed to accelerate the discovery of new drugs. Assessing protein-ligand interaction is of great importance for drug development. One of the techniques that may be used to evaluate ligand-binding affinitty is isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). This experimental methodology may be(More)
The synapse is a crowded area. In the last years, the concept that proteins can be organized in different membrane domains according to their structure has emerged. Cholesterol-rich membrane domains, or lipid rafts, form an organized portion of the membrane that is thought to concentrate signaling molecules. Accumulating evidence has shown that both the(More)