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Long lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission can be triggered by brief bursts of afferent stimulation, underlying long-term potentiation (LTP), and also by brief ischemia in a process known as i-LTP. The extent to which LTP and i-LTP rely on comparable cellular mechanisms remains unclear. Under physiological conditions, LTP induction drives transient(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common representative of a group of disorders known as synucleinopathies, in which misfolding and aggregation of α-synuclein (a-syn) in various brain regions is the major pathological hallmark. Indeed, the motor symptoms in PD are caused by a heterogeneous degeneration of brain neurons not only in substantia nigra pars(More)
Neuroprotection is one of the prominent functions of the interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokine family, for which the underlying mechanism(s) are not fully understood. We have previously shown that neuroprotection and neuromodulation mediated by IL-6 require neuronal adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1) R) function. We now have investigated whether two other IL-6-type(More)
The synapse is a crowded area. In the last years, the concept that proteins can be organized in different membrane domains according to their structure has emerged. Cholesterol-rich membrane domains, or lipid rafts, form an organized portion of the membrane that is thought to concentrate signaling molecules. Accumulating evidence has shown that both the(More)
The Park Grass experiment (PGE) in the UK has been ongoing since 1856. Its purpose is to study the response of biological communities to the long-term treatments and associated changes in soil parameters, particularly soil pH. In this study, soil samples were collected across pH gradient (pH 3.6–7) and a range of fertilizers (nitrogen as ammonium sulfate,(More)
We have previously demonstrated the involvement of specific apoptosis-associated microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-34a, in mouse neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation. In addition, a growing body of evidence points to a critical role for autophagy during neuronal differentiation, as a response-survival mechanism to limit oxidative stress and regulate(More)
Phosphorylation of glutamate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by Protein Kinase A (PKA) is known to regulate AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking and stabilization at the postsynaptic membrane, which in turn is one of the key mechanisms by which synaptic transmission and plasticity are tuned. However, not much is known as(More)
It is widely accepted that Hebbian forms of plasticity mediate selective modifications in synaptic strength underlying information encoding in response to experience and circuit formation or refinement throughout development. Several complementary forms of homeostatic plasticity coordinate to keep Hebbian plasticity in check, frequently through the actions(More)
Synapses are considered the earliest site of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, where synapse density is reduced, and synaptic loss is highly correlated with cognitive impairment. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) has been shown to be neuroprotective in several models of AD, including neuronal exposure to amyloid β (Aβ) and amyloid precursor protein(More)
The incidence of the autoimmune disease, type 1 diabetes (T1D), has increased dramatically over the last half century in many developed countries and is particularly high in Finland and other Nordic countries. Along with genetic predisposition, environmental factors are thought to play a critical role in this increase. As with other autoimmune diseases, the(More)