Raphael Winkels

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The postsynaptic adhesion protein neuroligin-2 (NL2) is selectively localized at inhibitory synapses. Here, we studied network activity in the dentate gyrus of NL2-deficient mice following perforant path (PP) stimulation in vivo. We found a strong increase in granule cell (GC) excitability. Furthermore, paired-pulse inhibition (PPI) of the population spike,(More)
The function of the spine apparatus in dendritic spines and the cisternal organelles in axon initial segments is little understood. The actin-associated protein, synaptopodin, is essential for the formation of these organelles which are absent in synaptopodin -/- mice. Here, we used synaptopodin -/- mice to explore the role of the spine apparatus and the(More)
The submembrane cytoskeletal meshwork of the axon contains the scaffolding protein betaIV-spectrin. It provides mechanical support for the axon and anchors membrane proteins. Quivering (qv(3j)) mice lack functional betaIV-spectrin and have reduced voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) immunoreactivity at the axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. Because(More)
Denervation-induced changes in excitatory synaptic strength were studied following entorhinal deafferentation of hippocampal granule cells in mature (≥ 3 weeks old) mouse organotypic entorhino-hippocampal slice cultures. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed an increase in excitatory synaptic strength in response to denervation during the first week(More)
The efficiency of a supervised nurse endoscopist having been established, the role of nurse endoscopists has been extended to the treatment of diminutive colonic mucosal lesions. One nurse endoscopist, under supervision by a physician mentor, has carried out more than 6,000 sigmoidoscopies in a recent 1-year period and has fulgurated one or more diminutive(More)
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