Raphael Wekesa Lihana

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BACKGROUND HIV-1 strains have diversified extensively through mutation and recombination since their initial transmission to human beings many decades ago in Central Africa in the first part of the 20th Century (between 1915 and 1941). The upward trend in global HIV-1 diversity has continued unabated, with newer groups, subtypes, and unique and circulating(More)
In Kenya, HIV diagnosis is not routinely carried out in infants, and yet rapid diagnosis could improve access to lifesaving interventions. A cheap and readily accessible service can resolve this problem, if feasible. In this pilot study the feasibility and costs of provision of an infant HIV diagnosis service in Kenya are evaluated. Dried blood spots (DBS)(More)
Circulating strains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exhibit an extraordinary degree of genetic diversity and have been classified on the basis of relationships into distinct lineages called groups, types, subtypes, and subsubtypes. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are known to be a risk factor for HIV infection. To establish HIV-1 subtype(More)
The treatment of HIV-1 infection with antiretroviral drugs has greatly improved the survival of those who are infected. However, HIV-1 diversity and drug resistance are major challenges in patient management, especially in resource-poor countries. To evaluate HIV-1 genetic diversity and drug resistance-associated mutations among drug-naive patients in Kenya(More)
The last ten years have witnessed a significant scale-up and access to antiretroviral therapy in Africa, which has improved patient quality of life and survival. One major challenge associated with increased access to antiretroviral therapy is the development of antiretroviral resistance due to inconsistent drug supply and/or poor patient adherence. We(More)
The genetic subtypes of HIV-1 circulating in northern Kenya have not been characterized. Here we report the partial sequencing and analysis of samples collected in the years 2003 and 2004 from 72 HIV-1-positive patients in northern Kenya, which borders Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan. From the analysis of partial env sequences, it was determined that 50% were(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Hai Phong, northern Vietnam, was characterized by analyzing the prevalence and genotype distribution of HBV as well as co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among five different risk groups for HIV infection. Plasma samples were collected from intravenous drug users (n=760, anti-HIV-1 antibody(More)
BACKGROUND The enumeration of absolute CD4 counts is of primary importance for many medical conditions especially HIV infection where therapeutic initiation depends on the count. These ranges tend to vary across populations. However, these ranges have not been comprehensively established in the Kenyan population. Therefore, this study aimed at establishing(More)
BACKGROUND Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased dramatically in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, 560,000 people had access to ART by the end of 2011. This scaling up of ART has raised challenges to the Kenyan health system due to emergence of drug resistant viruses among those on treatment and possible onward transmission. To counter this, and(More)
A switch of coreceptor usage from CCR5 to CXCR4 occurs in about half of HIV-1-infected individuals in the natural course of infection. To investigate whether antiretroviral therapy (ART) enhances the coreceptor switch of HIV-1, we genotypically analyzed the env-V3 amino acid sequences from 81 HIV-1-infected children in Kenya whose plasma samples were(More)