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Dedicated, spatially configured FPGA interconnect is efficient for applications that require high throughput connections between processing elements (PEs) but with a limited degree of PE interconnectivity (e.g. wiring up gates and datapaths). Applications which virtualize PEs may require a large number of distinct PE-to-PE connections (e.g. using one PE to(More)
As feature sizes scale toward atomic limits, parameter variation continues to increase, leading to increased margins in both delay and energy. The possibility of very slow devices on critical paths forces designers to increase transistor sizes, reduce clock speed and operate at higher voltages than desired in order to meet timing. With post-fabrication(More)
Many important applications are organized around long-lived, irregular sparse graphs (e.g., data and knowledge bases, CAD optimization, numerical problems, simulations). The graph structures are large, and the applications need regular access to a large, data-dependent portion of the graph for each operation (e.g., the algorithm may need to walk the graph,(More)
Primary cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons underwent apoptosis when switched from medium containing 25 mM K+ to one containing 5 mM K+. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) protected granule neurons from apoptosis in medium containing 5 mM K+. Inhibition of apoptosis by NMDA was blocked by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) inhibitor LY294002, but(More)
—How does multilevel metallization impact the design of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) interconnect? The availability of a growing number of metal layers presents the opportunity to use wiring in the third dimension to reduce area and switch requirements. Unfortunately, traditional FPGA wiring schemes are not designed to exploit these additional(More)
The ability of ethanol to interfere with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)-mediated cell survival was examined in primary cultured cerebellar granule neurons. Cells underwent apoptosis when switched from medium containing 25 mM K+ to one containing 5 mM K+. IGF-1 protected granule neurons from apoptosis in medium containing 5 mM K+. Ethanol inhibited(More)
UNLABELLED Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is sometimes diagnosed based on a positive antimitochondrial antibody in the appropriate clinical setting without a liver biopsy. Although a liver biopsy can assess the extent of liver fibrosis and provide prognostic information, serum fibrosis markers avoid biopsy complications and sampling error and provide(More)
We show that, with the VPR implementation of Pathfinder, perturbations of initial conditions may cause critical paths to vary over ranges of 17-110%. We further show that it is not uncommon for VPR/Pathfinder to settle for solutions that are >33% slower than necessary. These results suggest there is room for additional innovation and improvement in FPGA(More)