Raphael Lamed

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The microbiota of the mammalian intestine depend largely on dietary polysaccharides as energy sources. Most of these polymers are not degradable by the host, but herbivores can derive 70% of their energy intake from microbial breakdown — a classic example of mutualism. Moreover, dietary polysaccharides that reach the human large intestine have a major(More)
Significant quantitative differences in end-product yields by two strains of Clostridium thermocellum and one strain of Thermoanaerobium brockii were observed during cellobiose fermentation. Most notably, the ethanol/H(2) and lactate/acetate ratios were drastically higher for T. brockii as compared with C. thermocellum strains LQRI and AS39. Exogenous H(2)(More)
The isolation and biochemical characterization of the extracellular form of a cellulose-binding factor (CBF) from Clostridium thermocellum is described. The CBF was isolated from the culture supernatant by a two-step procedure which included affinity chromatography on cellulose and gel filtration on Sepharose 4B. The isolated CBF was homogeneous as(More)
The structural complexity and rigidity of cellulosic substrates have given rise to a phenomenal diversity of degradative enzymes--the cellulases. Cellulolytic microorganisms produce a wide variety of different catalytic and noncatalytic enzyme modules, which form the cellulases and act synergistically on their substrate. In some microbes, several types of(More)
The discrete multicomponent, multienzyme cellulosome complex of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria provides enhanced synergistic activity among the different resident enzymes to efficiently hydrolyze intractable cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates of the plant cell wall. A pivotal noncatalytic subunit called scaffoldin secures the various enzymatic(More)
Growth and succinate versus lactate production from glucose by Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens was regulated by the level of available carbon dioxide and culture pH. At pH 7.2, the generation time was almost doubled and extensive amounts of lactate were formed in comparison with growth at pH 6.2. The succinate yield and the yield of ATP per mole of(More)
The cellulosome is a macromolecular machine, whose components interact in a synergistic manner to catalyze the efficient degradation of cellulose. The cellulosome complex is composed of numerous kinds of cellulases and related enzyme subunits, which are assembled into the complex by virtue of a unique type of scaffolding subunit (scaffoldin). Each of the(More)
Cellulosomes are intricate multienzyme systems produced by several cellulolytic bacteria, the first example of which was discovered in the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum. Cellulosomes are designed for efficient degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides, notably cellulose--the most abundant renewable polymer on earth. The(More)
The adherence of Clostridium thermocellum, a cellulolytic, thermophilic anaerobe, to its insoluble substrate (cellulose) was studied. The adherence phenomenon was determined to be selective for cellulose. The observed adherence was not significantly affected by various parameters, including salts, pH, temperature, detergents, or soluble sugars. A(More)
Thermoanaerobium brockii was shown to catabolize glucose via the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway into ethanol, acetic acid, H(2)-CO(2), and lactic acid. Radioactive tracer studies, employing specifically labeled [(14)C]glucose, demonstrated significant fermentation of (14)CO(2) from C-3 and C-4 of the substrate exclusively. All extracts contained sufficient(More)