Raphaël Trouillon

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The basis for communication between nerve cells lies in the process of exocytosis, the fusion of neurotransmitter filled vesicles with the cell membrane resulting in release of the signaling molecules. Even though much is known about this process, the extent that the vesicles are emptied upon fusion is a topic that is being debated. We have analyzed(More)
Fabrication of carbon microelectrode arrays, with up to 15 electrodes in total tips as small as 10-50 μm, is presented. The support structures of microelectrodes were obtained by pulling multiple quartz capillaries together to form hollow capillary arrays before carbon deposition. Carbon ring microelectrodes were deposited by pyrolysis of acetylene in the(More)
We present an amperometric study of content release from individual vesicles in an artificial secretory cell designed with the minimal components required to carry out exocytosis. Here, the membranes of the cell and vesicles are substituted for protein-free giant and large unilamellar vesicles respectively. In replacement of the SNARE-complex, the cell(More)
Thin-film platinum ultramicroelectrode arrays (MEAs) with subcellular microelectrodes were developed for the spatial measurement of neurotransmitter release across single cells or clusters of single cells. MEAs consisting of 16, 25, and 36 square ultramicroelectrodes with respective widths of 4, 3, and 2 μm were fabricated on glass substrates by(More)
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is a critical but complex phenomenon modulated by numerous physicochemical conditions. Nitric oxide (NO) is a very well known biological mediator involved in vascular physiology. This study focuses on relationships between the effect of angiogenin, a major angiogenic factor, and extracellular NO release. NO(More)
The diffusional hindrance of the glycocalyx along the cell surface on exocytotic peaks, observed with single cell amperometry, was investigated. Partial digestion of the glycocalyx with neuraminidase led to the observation of faster peaks, as shown by varied peak parameters. This result indicates that diffusion of small molecules in the partially digested(More)
Oxygen is a major actor of many physiological, biological and industrial processes; as such, its monitoring is of paramount importance. The effects of protein biofouling on dissolved oxygen measurements are described. The consequences of protein adsorption on electrode kinetics and mass transport were quantified using cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance and(More)
An organic lateral resolution test device has been developed to measure the performance of imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) systems. The device contains periodic gratings of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and lipid bars covering a wide range of spatial frequencies. Microfabrication technologies were employed to produce well-defined chemical interfaces, which(More)
Nitric oxide (NO), a biological mediator involved in vascular physiology, was sensed electrochemically using a microelectrode array. Angiogenin was shown to trigger nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and embryonic stem cell derived endothelial cells independently from its RNase activity.