Raphaël Arlettaz

Learn More
Bats that capture animal prey from substrates often emit characteristic echolocation calls that are short-duration, frequency-modulated (FM) and broadband. Such calls seem to be suited to locating prey in uncluttered habitats, including flying prey, but may be less effective for finding prey among cluttered backgrounds because echoes reflecting from the(More)
This paper presents a new habitat suitability modeling method whose main properties are as follows: (1) It is based on the density of observation points in the environmental space, which enables it to fit complex distributions (e.g. nongaussian, bimodal, asymmetrical, etc.). (2) This density is modeled by computing the geometric mean to all observation(More)
Since 1899 ringing (or banding) remained the most important source of information about migration routes, stopover sites and wintering grounds for birds that are too small to carry satellite-based tracking systems. Despite the large quantity of migrating birds ringed in their breeding areas in Europe, the number of ring recoveries from sub-Saharan Africa is(More)
Understanding population dynamics requires accurate estimates of demographic rates. Integrated population models combine demographic and survey data into a single, comprehensive analysis and provide more coherent estimates of vital rates. Integrated population models rely on the assumption that different data sets are independent, which is frequently(More)
Because of their role in limiting gene flow, geographical barriers like mountains or seas often coincide with intraspecific genetic discontinuities. Although the Strait of Gibraltar represents such a potential barrier for both plants and animals, few studies have been conducted on its impact on gene flow. Here we test this effect on a bat species (Myotis(More)
Parasites often exert severe negative effects upon their host's fitness. Natural selection has therefore prompted the evolution of anti-parasite mechanisms such as grooming. Grooming is efficient at reducing parasitic loads in both birds and mammals, but the energetic costs it entails have not been properly quantified. We measured both the energetic(More)
Spatially organized distribution patterns of species and communities are shaped by both autogenic processes (neutral mechanism theory) and exogenous processes (niche theory). In the latter, environmental variables that are themselves spatially organized induce spatial structure in the response variables. The relative importance of these processes has not(More)
1. Sex differences in levels of parasite infection are a common rule in a wide range of mammals, with males usually more susceptible than females. Sex-specific exposure to parasites, e.g. mediated through distinct modes of social aggregation between and within genders, as well as negative relationships between androgen levels and immune defences are thought(More)
Urban areas are a particular landscape matrix characterized by a fine-grained spatial arrangement of very diverse habitats (urban mosaic). We investigated arthropods to analyse biodiversity-habitat associations along five environmental gradients (age, impervious area, management, configuration, composition) in three Swiss cities (96 study sites). We(More)
Mating systems are a central component in the evolution of animal life histories and in conservation genetics. The patterns of male reproductive skew and of paternal shares in batches of offspring, for example, affect genetic effective population size. A prominent characteristic of mating systems of sea turtles seem to be a considerable intra- and(More)