Raphaél Scharfmann

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Novel strategies in diabetes therapy would obviously benefit from the use of beta (beta) cell stem/progenitor cells. However, whether or not adult beta cell progenitors exist is one of the most controversial issues in today's diabetes research. Guided by the expression of Neurogenin 3 (Ngn3), the earliest islet cell-specific transcription factor in(More)
OBJECTIVE Zinc ions are essential for the formation of hexameric insulin and hormone crystallization. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs13266634 in the SLC30A8 gene, encoding the secretory granule zinc transporter ZnT8, is associated with type 2 diabetes. We describe the effects of deleting the ZnT8 gene in mice and explore the action of the(More)
The importance of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions for the proper development of the pancreas has been acknowledged since the early 1960s, even though the molecule(s) mediating this process have remained unknown. We demonstrate here that Fgf10, a member of the fibroblast growth factor family (FGFs), plays an essential role in this process. We show that(More)
In this study, we have investigated the role of the embryonic mesenchyme in the development of the pancreas. We have compared the development in vitro of E12.5 rat pancreatic rudiments grown in the presence or absence of mesenchyme. When the E12.5 pancreatic epithelial rudiment is cultured in the presence of its surrounding mesenchyme, both morphogenesis(More)
BACKGROUND The ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel, composed of the beta-cell proteins sulfonylurea receptor (SUR1) and inward-rectifying potassium channel subunit Kir6.2, is a key regulator of insulin release. It is inhibited by the binding of adenine nucleotides to subunit Kir6.2, which closes the channel, and activated by nucleotide binding or(More)
The development of the pancreas depends on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs 1-4) have been identified as mediators of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in different organs. We show here that FGFR-2 IIIb and its ligands FGF-1, FGF-7, and FGF-10 are expressed throughout pancreatic development.(More)
Pancreatic development is a classic example of epithelium-mesenchyme interaction. During embryonic life, signals from the mesenchyme control the proliferation of precursor cells within the pancreatic epithelium and their differentiation into endocrine or acinar cells. It has been shown that signals from the mesenchyme activate epithelial cell proliferation(More)
The product of the proto-oncogene Jun inhibits myogenesis. Constitutive expression of Jun in myoblasts interferes with the expression and the function of MyoD protein. In transient transfection assays Jun inhibits transactivation of the MyoD promoter, the muscle creatine kinase enhancer, and a reporter gene linked to MyoD DNA-binding sites. Conversely, MyoD(More)
Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to the organism under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology and long-term health. Developmental origins of health and disease and life-history(More)
In the early human embryonic/fetal pancreas, we studied 1) the ontogenetic pattern of the endocrine cells and the evolution of the endocrine mass, and 2) the morphogenetic pattern of development and, more precisely, the complex relationship of the epithelial mass with the surrounding mesenchyme. We studied 15 pancreases between 7 and 11 weeks of development(More)