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BACKGROUND The Thai Phase III Trial of ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX B/E showed an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) of 31% to prevent acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here we evaluated the effect of vaccination on disease progression after infection. METHODS CD4(+) T-cell counts and HIV viral load (VL) were measured serially. The primary analysis(More)
BACKGROUND Limited knowledge exists on early HIV events that may inform preventive and therapeutic strategies. This study aims to characterize the earliest immunologic and virologic HIV events following infection and investigates the usage of a novel therapeutic strategy. METHODS AND FINDINGS We prospectively screened 24,430 subjects in Bangkok and(More)
Mucosal Th17 cells play an important role in maintaining gut epithelium integrity and thus prevent microbial translocation. Chronic HIV infection is characterized by mucosal Th17 cell depletion, microbial translocation and subsequent immune-activation, which remain elevated despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) correlating with increased mortality. However,(More)
Fourth generation (4thG) immunoassay (IA) is becoming the standard HIV screening method but was not available when the Fiebig acute HIV infection (AHI) staging system was proposed. Here we evaluated AHI staging based on a 4thG IA (4thG staging). Screening for AHI was performed in real-time by pooled nucleic acid testing (NAT, n=48,828 samples) and(More)
BACKGROUND It is unclear whether intensification of standard highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with entry and integrase inhibitors during acute HIV infection (AHI) could yield greater benefits in reducing markers for HIV reservoir size and immune activation. METHODS Thai patients with Fiebig I-IV AHI were prospectively enrolled and offered(More)
BACKGROUND The challenges of identifying acute HIV infection (AHI) have resulted in a lack of critical information on early AHI that constrains the development of therapeutics that are designed to eradicate HIV from the infected host. METHODS AHI participants were recruited from the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic in Bangkok, Thailand into the(More)
The RV254 cohort of HIV-infected very early acute (4thG stage 1 and 2) (stage 1/2) and late acute (4thG stage 3) (stage 3) individuals was used to study T helper- B cell responses in acute HIV infection and the impact of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) on T and B cell function. To investigate this, the function of circulating T follicular helper cells(More)
INTRODUCTION As availability of antiretroviral therapy expands in developing countries, the risk for transmission of drug-resistant HIV also increases. Patients with acute HIV infection (AHI) provide an opportunity for real-time monitoring of transmitted drug resistance (TDR). SEARCH 010/RV 254 study is a prospective, longitudinal study of AHI. This(More)
INTRODUCTION HIV transmission risk is highest during acute HIV infection (AHI). We evaluated HIV RNA in the anogenital compartment in men who have sex with men (MSM) during AHI and compared time to undetectable HIV RNA after three-drug versus five-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) to understand risk for onward HIV transmission. METHODS MSM with AHI (n=54)(More)