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BACKGROUND The Thai Phase III Trial of ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX B/E showed an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) of 31% to prevent acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here we evaluated the effect of vaccination on disease progression after infection. METHODS CD4(+) T-cell counts and HIV viral load (VL) were measured serially. The primary analysis(More)
Mucosal Th17 cells play an important role in maintaining gut epithelium integrity and thus prevent microbial translocation. Chronic HIV infection is characterized by mucosal Th17 cell depletion, microbial translocation and subsequent immune-activation, which remain elevated despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) correlating with increased mortality. However,(More)
BACKGROUND Limited knowledge exists on early HIV events that may inform preventive and therapeutic strategies. This study aims to characterize the earliest immunologic and virologic HIV events following infection and investigates the usage of a novel therapeutic strategy. METHODS AND FINDINGS We prospectively screened 24,430 subjects in Bangkok and(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence, demographics, HIV subtype, and genotypic resistance of acute HIV infections in a high-risk Thai population. METHODS Between March 2006 and September 2007, 6426 stored samples at the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic were screened for acute HIV infection by 2 methods: pooled nucleic acid(More)
CRF01_AE and subtype B are circulating in Thailand and the strains have become intermixed in some high-risk groups, establishing the possibility of intersubtype recombination. The first such recombinant, mostly B with gp120 from CRF01_AE, was recently identified. Here we report a heterosexually acquired recombinant of different structure, with most of the(More)
Quantification of HIV-1 subtypes is essential for appropriate clinical management. Whereas viral load assays were initially developed to accurately quantify subtype B, the recent worldwide spread of non-B subtypes and the introduction of treatment programs in regions with non-B subtypes have prompted adaptations of these assays. The Bayer Versant HIV-1 RNA(More)
Fourth generation (4thG) immunoassay (IA) is becoming the standard HIV screening method but was not available when the Fiebig acute HIV infection (AHI) staging system was proposed. Here we evaluated AHI staging based on a 4thG IA (4thG staging). Screening for AHI was performed in real-time by pooled nucleic acid testing (NAT, n=48,828 samples) and(More)
The RV254 cohort of HIV-infected very early acute (4thG stage 1 and 2) (stage 1/2) and late acute (4thG stage 3) (stage 3) individuals was used to study T helper- B cell responses in acute HIV infection and the impact of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) on T and B cell function. To investigate this, the function of circulating T follicular helper cells(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the addition of HIV nucleic acid testing (NAT) to fourth-generation (4thG) HIV antigen/antibody combination immunoassay in improving detection of acute HIV infection (AHI). METHODS Participants attending a major voluntary counseling and testing site in Thailand were screened for AHI using 4thG HIV antigen/antibody immunoassay and(More)