Raoul J. de Groot

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Recent evidence suggests that the type II feline coronavirus (FCoV) strains 79-1146 and 79-1683 have arisen from a homologous RNA recombination event between FCoV type I and canine coronavirus (CCV). In both cases, the template switch apparently took place between the S and M genes, giving rise to recombinant viruses which encode a CCV-like S protein and(More)
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) persistence and evolution were studied in a closed cat-breeding facility with an endemic serotype I FCoV infection. Viral RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the feces and/or plasma of 36 of 42 cats (86%) tested. Of 5 cats, identified as FCoV shedders during the initial survey, 4 had(More)
A nested reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-nPCR) was developed for the detection of feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA in the feces, tissues, and body fluids of infected cats. The RT-nPCR was targeted to the highly conserved 3'-untranslated region of the viral genome and will detect most, if not all, feline coronaviruses in the field. With the RT-nPCR, FCoV RNA was(More)
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a lethal systemic disease caused by FIP virus (FIPV), a virulent mutant of apathogenic feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). We analysed the 3c gene--a proposed virulence marker--in 27 FECV- and 28 FIPV-infected cats. Our findings suggest that functional 3c protein expression is crucial for FECV replication in the gut,(More)
Toroviruses (family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales) are enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that have been implicated in enteric disease in cattle and possibly in humans. Despite their potential veterinary and clinical relevance, little is known about torovirus epidemiology and molecular genetics. Here, we present the first study into the diversity(More)
Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) have been subdivided into feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs) and feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPVs) on the basis of pathogenic properties. Serologically, a distinction has been made between type I and II FCoVs, the latter of which more closely resemble canine coronavirus (CCV). To gain more insight into the genetic(More)
A porcine torovirus (PoTV) was identified and characterized; it is a novel member of the genus Torovirus (family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales), closely related to but clearly distinct from the already recognized equine torovirus (ETV) and bovine torovirus (BoTV) representatives. Immunoelectron microscopy of feces from piglets revealed elongated, 120- by(More)
Arteri-, corona-, toro- and roniviruses are evolutionarily related positive-strand RNA viruses, united in the order Nidovirales. The best studied nidoviruses, the corona- and arteriviruses, employ a unique transcription mechanism, which involves discontinuous RNA synthesis, a process resembling similarity-assisted copy-choice RNA recombination. During(More)
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) open reading frame 3a protein has recently been shown to be a structural protein. The protein is encoded by one of the so-called group-specific genes and has no sequence homology with any of the known structural or group-specific proteins of coronaviruses. It does, however, have several(More)