Raoul Charles Coombes

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BACKGROUND Early improvements in disease-free survival have been noted when an aromatase inhibitor is given either instead of or sequentially after tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with oestrogen-receptor-positive early breast cancer. However, little information exists on the long-term effects of aromatase inhibitors after treatment, and whether these(More)
The aim of this study was to determine whether reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for keratin 19 (K19) provides additional information when combined with immunohistochemistry when used to detect micrometastases in blood and bone marrow in patients with primary breast cancer. We studied 78 patients with breast cancer who had no evidence(More)
PURPOSE Trichostatin A (TSA), an antifungal antibiotic with cytostatic and differentiating properties in mammalian cell culture, is a potent and specific inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and HDAC inhibitory activity of TSA in vitro in human breast cancer cell lines and to(More)
Phosphorylation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) N-terminal transcription activation function AF1 at serine 118 (S118) modulates its activity. We show here that human ERalpha is phosphorylated by the TFIIH cyclin-dependent kinase in a ligand-dependent manner. Furthermore, the efficient phosphorylation of S118 requires a ligand-regulated interaction(More)
BACKGROUND Bone-marrow micrometastases have been found in patients with primary breast cancer. We report long-term follow-up of women with primary breast cancer, diagnosed between 1981 and 1986, who had multiple aspirates taken at the time of initial surgery. METHODS 350 women with primary breast cancer were examined immunocytochemically with antibody to(More)
4-Hydroxyandrostenedione (CGP32349; 4-OHA) is a clinically effective treatment for advanced postmenopausal breast cancer by both the parenteral and p.o. routes, as a result of its inhibition of aromatase and consequent suppression of plasma estrogen levels. Thirty patients were randomized to treatment with 250 mg 4-OHA orally once, twice, and 4 times daily(More)
Oestrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) is an important prognostic marker in breast cancer and endocrine therapies are designed to inhibit or prevent ERalpha activity. In vitro studies have indicated that phosphorylation of ERalpha, in particular on serine 118 (S118), can result in activation in a ligand-independent manner, thereby potentially contributing to(More)
Trichostatin A is a potent and specific histone deacetylase inhibitor with promising antitumor activity in preclinical models. Plasma pharmacokinetics of trichostatin A were studied following single-dose intraperitoneal administration of 80 mg/kg (high dose) or 0.5 mg/kg (low dose) to female BALB/c mice. Plasma trichostatin A concentrations were quantified(More)
Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is an important developmental protein which is oncogenic and able to cooperate with wnt-1 to produce mouse mammary carcinoma. The level of expression of FGF8 mRNA was measured in 68 breast cancers and 24 non-malignant breast tissues. Elevated levels of FGF8 mRNA were found in malignant compared to non-malignant breast(More)