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Many patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), despite therapy with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), have persisting daytime somnolence that may be due to a persistently elevated upper-airway resistance associated with electroencephalographic (EEG) arousals. We tested the hypothesis that elevated upper-airway resistance can be(More)
Tuberculosis leads to immune activation and increased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in the lung. However, in vitro models of mycobacterial infection of human macrophages do not fully reproduce these in vivo observations, suggesting that there are additional host factors. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an important mediator of(More)
Local cellular immune responses may affect presentation and outcome in tuberculosis (TB). To investigate this hypothesis, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) on 30 patients with untreated pulmonary tuberculosis and assessed the type of cellular inflammatory response and cytokine production. We then correlated BAL findings and cytokine production with(More)
We investigated the in vivo effect of coinfection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of 11 HIV-1-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 10 patients with no lung disease. Lung segments involved with pulmonary tuberculosis had significantly elevated HIV-1(More)
BACKGROUND Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is associated with substantial morbidity, despite drug therapy. Interferon-gamma, a cytokine produced mainly by CD4 T lymphocytes, can activate alveolar macrophages, important effector cells in host immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We investigated safety and tolerability of aerosolised(More)
BACKGROUND There is a need for rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. We have previously used a PCR to detect circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in blood samples from patients (mostly HIV-infected) with pulmonary tuberculosis. We have now prospectively investigated the role of this blood-based PCR assay for diagnosis of this disease in a(More)
Pulmonary tuberculosis may alter volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath because Mycobacteria and oxidative stress resulting from Mycobacterial infection both generate distinctive VOCs. The objective of this study was to determine if breath VOCs contain biomarkers of active pulmonary tuberculosis. Head space VOCs from cultured Mycobacterium tuberculosis(More)
A variety of neuropharmacological strategies are being pursued in the search for an effective treatment for methamphetamine (Meth) addiction. In this study, we investigated the safety and potential efficacy of aripiprazole, an antipsychotic agent acting on both dopamine and serotonin systems. We conducted a double-blind in-patient clinical pharmacology(More)
Tuberculosis is the seventh leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, with eight million cases per year. Animal and human studies demonstrate an enrichment of CD4 cells at sites of disease, with a more favorable clinical course when there is a Th1 response with the presence of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). We previously treated patients who had(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To investigate the characteristics of tuberculosis infection in diabetic patients at Bellevue Hospital. DESIGN We conducted a case-control study retrospectively reviewing the records of patients at Bellevue Hospital Center from 1987 to 1997 with a discharge diagnosis of tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus. SETTING Bellevue Hospital(More)