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Measurements of submicron particles by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in 14 campaigns in North America, Asia, South America, and Europe were used to identify characteristic organic functional group compositions of fuel combustion, terrestrial vegetation, and ocean bubble bursting sources, each of which often accounts for more than a third of(More)
Black carbon (BC) is functionally defined as the absorbing component of atmospheric total carbonaceous aerosols (TC) and is typically dominated by soot-like elemental carbon (EC). However, organic carbon (OC) has also been shown to absorb strongly at visible to UV wavelengths and the absorbing organics are referred to as brown carbon (BrC), which is(More)
Atmospheric particles collected during the ICARTT 2004 field experiment at ground based sites at Appledore Island (AI), New Hampshire, Chebogue Point (CP), Nova Scotia, and aboard the R/V Ronald Brown (RB) were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to quantify organic mass (OM) and organic functional groups. Several of these spectra(More)
Deployment of improved biomass burning cookstoves is recognized as a black carbon (BC) mitigation measure that has the potential to achieve health benefits and climate cobenefits. Yet, few field based studies document BC concentration reductions (and resulting human exposure) resulting from improved stove usage. In this paper, data are presented from 277(More)
Surface tensions for liquid-vapor (lv), solid-liquid (sl), and solid-vapor (sv) interfaces are calculated from molecular dynamics simulations of the NaCl-water-air system. Three distinct calculation techniques based on thermodynamic properties are used to describe the multicomponent mixtures. Simulations of each bulk phase (including a liquid saturated(More)
[1] Black carbon (BC) has many effects on climate including the direct effect on atmospheric absorption, indirect and semi-direct effects on clouds, snow effects, and others. While most of these are positive (warming), the first indirect effect is negative and quantifying its magnitude in addition to other BC feedbacks is important for supporting policies(More)
We construct a taxonomy of transient behavior for one component coupled nucleation and growth based on linear and nonlinear stability analysis of a two species model. The two species are the condensable species and the condensed droplets or particles, respectively. Our model reproduces previously reported asymptotically stable and oscillatory transient(More)
We show that consideration of both cluster growth and magic numbers are necessary to accurately calculate nucleation rates for the condensation of alkali and coinage metal vapors. The effects are not additive. Rates calculated using the modified theory differ up to several orders of magnitude from typical classical calculations. Calculated rates compare(More)
Deliquescence properties of sodium chloride are size dependent for particles smaller than 100 nm. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to determine deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) for particles in this size range by modeling idealized particles in contact with humid air. Constant humidity conditions are simulated by inclusion of a liquid(More)
To gain a better understanding of the interaction of water and NaCl at the surface during dissolution, we have used molecular dynamics to simulate the interface with two equal-sized slabs of solid NaCl and liquid water in contact. The introduction of voids in the bulk of the salt, as well as steps or pits on the surface of the NaCl slab results in a(More)