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Patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 (HPS-2) have mutations in the beta 3A subunit of adaptor complex-3 (AP-3) and functional deficiency of this complex. AP-3 serves as a coat protein in the formation of new vesicles, including, apparently, the platelet's dense body and the melanocyte's melanosome. We used HPS-2 melanocytes in culture to determine(More)
This study was designed to determine the effect of diabetes on the function of the renal organic cation transport system that mediates the excretion of a wide variety of toxicants and drugs. The experiments compared the ability of renal cortex slices from streptozotocin-induced diabetic and non-diabetic rats to accumulate the model cation,(More)
Mechanism of protection against cisplatin nephrotoxicity in streptozotocin-diabetic rats is unclear but is associated with decreased renal platinum accumulation. This study was designed to determine whether normalization of hyperglycaemia by insulin treatment to six week streptozotocin-diabetic rats reversed protection against cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Male(More)
Tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Tyrp1) is a melanocyte-specific gene product involved in eumelanin synthesis. Mutations in the mouse Tyrp1 gene are associated with brown pelage, and in the human TYRP1 gene with oculocutaneous albinism type 3 (OCA3). In the murine system, Tyrp1 expresses significant dihydroxyindole carboxylic acid oxidase (i.e. DHICA oxidase)(More)
Erythrocyte sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE) represents one of a limited number of sodium entry pathway in erythrocytes. At least five NHE isoforms have been identified, differing in tissue specificity, regulatory characteristics, and pharmacological sensitivities. Although physiological characteristics of erythrocyte NHE suggest that the widely expressed(More)
To define genes associated with the pigmentary disorder vitiligo, gene expression was compared in non-lesional melanocytes cultured from three vitiligo patients and from three control melanocyte cultures by differential display. A basic local alignment search tool search did not reveal homology of six differentially expressed cDNA fragments to previously(More)
It has been known for several decades that cutaneous depigmentation, i.e., contact/occupational vitiligo, can be caused by some phenolic derivatives that have a similar structure to tyrosine. Among these phenolic depigmenting agents, 4-tertiary butylphenol is the most potent. The cutaneous depigmentation induced by phenolic derivatives results from the loss(More)
Recently we described a procedure for preparing antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) based on immunoglobulin idiotypes and on the hypothesis that, regardless of functional differences, macromolecules of the same specificity will show structural homologies in their binding sites. Antibodies were prepared in rabbits to a structurally constrained(More)
Vitiligo is an enigmatic pigmentary disorder of the skin. Factors potentially involved in the progressive loss of melanocytes from the basal layer of the epidermis include genetically determined aberrancies of the vitiligo melanocyte. It follows that analysis of melanocytes cultured from vitiligo donors can contribute to a further understanding of the(More)
The kidneys of diabetic rats exhibit resistance to the actions of a variety of nephrotoxic chemicals. Using the streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rat as a model, the experiments in this study examined the effect of the diabetic state on bioavailability, renal accumulation and renal toxicity following intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intravenous (i.v.) injection of(More)