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BACKGROUND The disease burden of influenza infection among children is not well established. We conducted a population-based surveillance of medical visits associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza. METHODS Eligible children were younger than five years of age, resided in three U.S. counties, and had a medical visit for an acute respiratory tract(More)
This laboratory previously described an L1210 leukemia cell line (MTXrA) selected for resistance to methotrexate by virtue of impaired transport. In this line, the reduced folate carrier had unchanged affinity for methotrexate, was present at the cell surface in usual quantity, but did not deliver drug into the cell, indicative of a functional defect in the(More)
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase and the trifunctional enzyme C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase have been purified to near homogeneity from L1210 cells. Kinetic constants (Km and kcat) have been determined for both folate and non-folate substrates. The effect of increasing glutamate chain length on affinity and catalytic efficiency were determined for the four(More)
Following exposure of L1210 leukemia cells to antifolates, tetrahydrofolate-dependent purine and pyrimidine biosyntheses are blocked despite the presence of the major portion of tetrahydrofolate cofactors. Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrated that this cannot be due to direct inhibition of thymidylate synthase by dihydrofolate polyglutamates(More)
This paper explores the interaction between 4-amino-antifolates and aldehyde oxidase (aldehyde: O2 oxidoreductase, EC that was purified 60- to 120-fold from rabbit liver with yields of 5-15%. The purification procedure consisted of one heat and two ammonium sulfate precipitations followed by chromatography on hydroxylapatite and then Sephacryl(More)
State and local vaccination requirements for school entry are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. Each year, to assess state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among kindergartners, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local,(More)
Folate analogs that inhibit dihydrofolate reductase result in only partial interconversion of tetrahydrofolate cofactors to dihydrofolate with preservation of the major portion of reduced cellular folate cofactors in L1210 leukemia cells. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that low levels of dihydrofolate polyglutamates that accumulate in the(More)
Transport of reduced folates in murine leukemia cells is mediated by the bidirectional reduced folate carrier (RFC1) and independent unidirectional exit pumps. RFC1 has been proposed to be intrinsically equilibrating, generating transmembrane gradients by exchange with inorganic and organic anions. This paper defines the role of high level carrier(More)