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OBJECTIVE To examine trends in alcohol use among pregnant women in the United States and to characterize pregnant women who use alcohol, with an emphasis on frequent use (at least five drinks per occasion or at least seven drinks per week). METHODS We used the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 1988 through 1995 to obtain the percentage(More)
BACKGROUND Prenatal alcohol exposure is a leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. DESIGN A randomized controlled trial (2002-2005; data analyzed 2005-2006) of a brief motivational intervention to reduce the risk of an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) in preconceptional women by focusing on both risk(More)
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a leading cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities. The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics and behaviors of mothers of children with FAS in the United States using population-based data from the FAS Surveillance Network (FASSNet). FASSNet used a multiple source methodology that identified(More)
BACKGROUND Frequent alcohol use during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy can result in spontaneous abortion and dysmorphologic changes in the developing organ systems of the embryo, including the heart, kidneys, and brain. However, few population-based studies are available that describe the prevalence of frequent drinking (6 or more drinks per week) among(More)
Our goal was to measure the pregnancy-related reduction in the prevalence of reported binge drinking (>/=5 alcoholic drinks per occasion) and to characterize binge drinkers among pregnant and nonpregnant women aged 18-44 years, in the United States, 1991-1995. We used the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 46 states. We used the prevalence(More)
CONTEXT Rates of smoking are increasing among adolescents and young adults, but trends in smoking among pregnant women have not been studied. OBJECTIVE To assess pregnancy-related variations in smoking behaviors and their determinants among women of childbearing age in the United States. DESIGN Analysis of data collected between 1987-1996 from the(More)
Alcohol use among women of childbearing age is prevalent in the United States, with approximately 1 in 5 nonpregnant women reporting binge drinking (5 or more drinks on any one occasion) and 1 in 25 pregnant women reporting binge drinking. Alcohol use during pregnancy results in a spectrum of adverse outcomes known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Fetal(More)
Four experiments examined attentional flexibility in listening to polyrhythmic patterns. Musically trained and untrained listeners detected changes in timing of 1 tone (the lower tone) in a 3:2 polyrhythm in which high and low tones varied in frequency separation. Experiment 1 encouraged integrative attending; all listeners performed significantly poorer in(More)
OBJECTIVES In 1986, the state health departments of Colorado, Maryland, and Missouri conducted a federally-funded demonstration project to increase smoking cessation among pregnant women receiving prenatal care and services from the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program in public clinics. METHODS Low-intensity interventions were designed to be(More)
Alcohol use among women of childbearing age is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. Although most women reduce their alcohol use upon pregnancy recognition, some women report drinking during pregnancy and others may continue to drink prior to realizing they are pregnant. These findings emphasize(More)