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Macromolecular X-ray crystallography is routinely applied to understand biological processes at a molecular level. However, significant time and effort are still required to solve and complete many of these structures because of the need for manual interpretation of complex numerical data using many software packages and the repeated use of interactive(More)
Phaser is a program for phasing macromolecular crystal structures by both molecular replacement and experimental phasing methods. The novel phasing algorithms implemented in Phaser have been developed using maximum likelihood and multivariate statistics. For molecular replacement, the new algorithms have proved to be significantly better than traditional(More)
The CCP4 (Collaborative Computational Project, Number 4) software suite is a collection of programs and associated data and software libraries which can be used for macromolecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography. The suite is designed to be flexible, allowing users a number of methods of achieving their aims. The programs are from a wide(More)
Structural genomics seeks to expand rapidly the number of protein structures in order to extract the maximum amount of information from genomic sequence databases. The advent of several large-scale projects worldwide leads to many new challenges in the field of crystallographic macromolecular structure determination. A novel software package called PHENIX(More)
Experiences with the molecular-replacement program Beast have shown that maximum-likelihood rotation targets are more sensitive to the correct orientation than traditional targets. However, this comes at a high computational cost: brute-force rotation searches can take hours or even days of computation time on current desktop computers. Series(More)
This paper is a companion to a recent paper on fast rotation functions [Storoni et al. (2004), Acta Cryst. D60, 432-438], which showed how a Taylor-series expansion of the maximum-likelihood rotation function leads to improved likelihood-enhanced fast rotation functions. In a similar manner, it is shown here how linear and quadratic Taylor-series expansions(More)
  • R J Read
  • 2001
The molecular-replacement method works well with good models and simple unit cells, but often fails with more difficult problems. Experience with likelihood in other areas of crystallography suggests that it would improve performance significantly. For molecular replacement, the form of the required likelihood function depends on whether there is ambiguity(More)
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) are essential components of RNA-guided adaptive immune systems that protect bacteria and archaea from viruses and plasmids. In Escherichia coli, short CRISPR-derived RNAs (crRNAs) assemble into a 405-kilodalton multisubunit surveillance complex called Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for(More)
X-ray crystallography is a critical tool in the study of biological systems. It is able to provide information that has been a prerequisite to understanding the fundamentals of life. It is also a method that is central to the development of new therapeutics for human disease. Significant time and effort are required to determine and optimize many(More)
Estimates of the quality of experimental maps are important in many stages of structure determination of macromolecules. Map quality is defined here as the correlation between a map and the corresponding map obtained using phases from the final refined model. Here, ten different measures of experimental map quality were examined using a set of 1359 maps(More)