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A new software suite, called Crystallography & NMR System (CNS), has been developed for macromolecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography or solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In contrast to existing structure-determination programs, the architecture of CNS is highly flexible, allowing for extension to other(More)
The serpins have evolved to be the predominant family of serine-protease inhibitors in man. Their unique mechanism of inhibition involves a profound change in conformation, although the nature and significance of this change has been controversial. Here we report the crystallographic structure of a typical serpin-protease complex and show the mechanism of(More)
Shiga-like toxin I (SLT-I) is a virulence factor of Escherichia coli strains that cause disease in humans. Like other members of the Shiga toxin family, it consists of an enzymatic (A) subunit and five copies of a binding subunit (the B-pentamer). The B-pentamer binds to a specific glycolipid, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), on the surface of target cells and(More)
Recently, the target function for crystallographic refinement has been improved through a maximum likelihood analysis, which makes proper allowance for the effects of data quality, model errors, and incompleteness. The maximum likelihood target reduces the significance of false local minima during the refinement process, but it does not completely eliminate(More)
BACKGROUND Pertussis toxin is an exotoxin of the A-B class produced by Bordetella pertussis. The holotoxin comprises 952 residues forming six subunits (five different sequences, S1-S5). It plays an important role in the development of protective immunity to whooping cough, and is an essential component of new acellular vaccines. It is also widely used as a(More)
RING domains are found in a large number of eukaryotic proteins. Most function as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases, catalyzing the terminal step in the ubiquitination process. Structurally, these domains have been characterized as binding two zinc ions in a stable cross-brace motif. The tumorigenic human gamma-herpesvirus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus(More)
Fibers of pilin monomers (pili) form the dominant adhesin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and they play an important role in infections by this opportunistic bacterial pathogen. Blocking adhesion is therefore a target for vaccine development. The receptor-binding site is located in a C-terminal disulphide-bonded loop of each pilin monomer, but functional binding(More)
The diseases caused by Shiga and cholera toxins account for the loss of millions of lives each year. Both belong to the clinically significant subset of bacterial AB5 toxins consisting of an enzymatically active A subunit that gains entry to susceptible mammalian cells after oligosaccharide recognition by the B5 homopentamer. Therapies might target the(More)
Several AB-toxins appear to have independently evolved mechanisms by which they undergo retrograde transport from the cell membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Recent insights into ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) now provide clues as to why these toxins have selected the ER as the site of cell entry. We propose that they disguise themselves(More)
The hormones that most directly control tissue activities in health and disease are delivered by two noninhibitory members of the serpin family of protease inhibitors, thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and corticosteroid-binding globulin. The structure of TBG bound to tetra-iodo thyroxine, solved here at 2.8 A, shows how the thyroxine is carried in a surface(More)